Organic solar cells (OSCs) have emerged as a promising technology for renewable energy generation due to their low cost, lightweight, flexibility, and compatibility with roll-to-roll manufacturing. However, OSCs still face challenges in achieving high power conversion efficiency (PCE) due to various factors, including recombination loss. In this study, we investigated the effect of introducing a layer of eight atomic percent gadolinium-doped zinc oxide (Zn0.92Gd0.08O) between the poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) active layer and the fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) electrode of the OSC. The reference cell, which has an Au/P3HT:PCBM/ZnO/FTO structure, exhibits a PCE of 0.52%. Remarkably, when the Zn0.92Gd0.08O layer was inserted (Au/P3HT:PCBM/Zn0.92Gd0.08O/FTO), the PCE increased significantly to 3.42%, which is more than six times the increase. Through further analysis, we present that the insertion of the Zn0.92Gd0.08O layer induces spin polarization in the P3HT:PCBM layer, leading to enhanced charge transport and reducing the recombination rate. Based on the findings, it can be concluded that the Zn0.92Gd0.08O film can potentially improve OSC performance.

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