In this work, we investigated both spontaneous and stimulated whispering gallery mode (WGM) emissions of 2 mol. % Li+-doped ZnO (Li-ZnO) microspheres with different sizes under 325 and 488 nm wavelength laser excitations, respectively. It was found that all the microspheres exhibit stimulated emissions under a visible laser excitation source of 488 nm wavelength after the threshold pumping power. Thereafter, we studied the dependence of threshold pumping power on the size of microresonators to achieve stimulated emissions by individual microspheres. Furthermore, two microspheres (MS2 and MS3) are excited via a 325 nm UV laser, and surprisingly, the WGM peaks of higher intensity are observed in the visible rather than in the UV spectral region. We expected that most of the emissions are achieved via defect states transitions instead of inter-band transitions in the microresonators. It was found that WGMs in each microsphere exhibit a linear spectral shift of 3–5 nm with increasing pumping power of 488 nm excitation laser source. We believe that these proposed microspheres can be utilized effectively as WGM-based visible lasers and sensors.
Investigation of size-dependent spontaneous and stimulated visible WGM emissions via both ultraviolet and visible excitations for sensing applications
Rizwana Khanum, Ching-Hang Chien, Yia-Chung Chang, Rakesh S. Moirangthem; Investigation of size-dependent spontaneous and stimulated visible WGM emissions via both ultraviolet and visible excitations for sensing applications. J. Appl. Phys. 21 December 2022; 132 (23): 235304. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0123678
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