Using a particle swarm optimization algorithm (a population-based stochastic optimization technique) combined with 3D finite-difference time-domain simulations, we inverse design periodic arrays of metallic nanoparticles on indium-tin-oxide electrodes and nanoholes in metallic thin films working as electrodes in P3HT (Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl)):PCBM ([6,6]-Phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester) organic solar cells to achieve the maximum short-circuit currents (Jsc). Nanohole-array electrodes have large optical losses, leading to a net reduction of Jsc compared to a reference solar cell. On the other hand, nanoparticle arrays can lead to a significant enhancement of Jsc of up to 20%. Detailed simulations show that this enhancement is caused by the grating coupling of the incident light to surface plasmon polaritons at the interface of the metal electrode and the hole transport layer, leading to the enhancement of the electromagnetic field in the organic blend.

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