Mode couplings associated with elastic wave propagation through three-dimensional multiplex structures, as manifested by asymmetric eigenmodes and dissipation, determine the efficiency of electromechanical structures. As a result, it is critical to predict electroelastic symmetric modes such as thickness expander and radial modes, as well as asymmetric flexural modes, while accounting for material losses. Multiplex electromechanical structures include multi-layered through-wall ultrasound power transfer (TWUPT) systems. Physical processes that support TWUPT include vibrations at a transmitting/acoustic source element, elastic wave propagation through a barrier and coupling layers, piezoelectric transduction of elastic vibrations at a receiving element, and spatial resonances of the transmitting and receiving elements. We investigate mode couplings in an optimized modal TWUPT system, including their physical origins, models used to describe them, and regimes of weak and strong couplings. The system layout optimization is defined in terms of size (volume), operating frequency, and matching circuit load optimization. A computational model is developed and utilized in conjunction with experimental modal characterization to highlight the impact of eigenmode features on optimization results. Several behavioral modes are identified and analyzed. The interaction of symmetric radial and asymmetric flexural modes causes the system damping to increase and the device's overall efficiency to decrease. The electromechanical coupling factor value is likewise reduced as a result of this. Such occurrences are explained by the flow of energy between modes as they interact. The present work also proposes design guidelines to improve the performance of TWUPT systems based on exploiting inherent physical phenomena.

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