We investigated the innovative processing of poly(vinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene) P(VDFx-TrFE1-x) (x = 83 mol. %) by inkjet printing to deliver uniform and thickness-controlled layers on silicon substrates. Here, we provide detailed processing steps and optimize film deposition conditions. The thickness coupling factor for a P(VDF-TrFE) film around 11 μm thick was 22%, demonstrating good electromechanical performance after poling. These multilayer structures were specifically for high-frequency, single-element ultrasonic transducer applications. The measurements of electro-acoustic responses were in water. The maximal frequency was centered at 33.2 MHz and had a fine axial resolution at 22 μm, corresponding to a fractional bandwidth at −6 dB of 100%. In the context of technological evolutions aimed at miniaturized devices and integrated electronics, these results allow for the consideration of complex structures such as multi-element transducers for high-frequency imaging applications.

1.
D. C.
Bassett
,
Developments in Crystalline Polymers—1
(
Springer
,
Netherlands
,
1982
).
2.
H.
Kawai
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.
8
,
975
(
1969
).
3.
A. J.
Lovinger
,
Science
220
,
1115
(
1983
).
4.
K.
Asadi
,
M.
Li
,
N.
Stingelin
,
P. W. M.
Blom
, and
D. M.
de Leeuw
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
97
,
193308
(
2010
).
5.
R. C. G.
Naber
,
K.
Asadi
,
P. W. M.
Blom
,
D. M.
de Leeuw
, and
B.
de Boer
,
Adv. Mater.
22
,
933
(
2010
).
6.
C.
Li
,
P.
Wu
,
S.
Lee
,
A.
Gorton
,
M. J.
Schulz
, and
C. H.
Ahn
,
J. Microelectromech. Syst.
17
,
334
(
2008
).
7.
Y. Y.
Choi
,
K.
Kwak
,
J. W.
Seo
,
M.
Park
,
H.
Paik
,
J. Y.
Lee
,
J.
Hong
, and
K.
No
,
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
132
,
41230
(
2014
).
8.
G. W.
Taylor
,
J. R.
Burns
,
S. A.
Kammann
,
W. B.
Powers
, and
T. R.
Welsh
,
IEEE J. Ocean Eng.
26
,
539
(
2001
).
9.
N.
Spampinato
,
J.
Maiz
,
G.
Portale
,
M.
Maglione
,
G.
Hadziioannou
, and
E.
Pavlopoulou
,
Polymer
149
,
66
(
2018
).
10.
Q.
Sun
,
W.
Xia
,
Y.
Liu
,
P.
Ren
,
X.
Tian
, and
T.
Hu
,
IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control
67
,
975
(
2020
).
11.
Y.
Kim
,
S.
Hong
,
S.
Oh
,
Y.-Y.
Choi
,
H.
Choi
, and
K.
No
,
Electron. Mater. Lett.
11
,
586
(
2015
).
12.
D.
Kim
,
S.
Hong
,
D.
Li
,
H. S.
Roh
,
G.
Ahn
,
J.
Kim
,
M.
Park
,
J.
Hong
,
T.
Sung
, and
K.
No
,
RSC Adv.
3
,
3194
(
2013
).
13.
M.
Bai
and
S.
Ducharme
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
85
,
3528
(
2004
).
14.
J.
Ryu
,
K.
No
,
Y.
Kim
,
E.
Park
, and
S.
Hong
,
Sci. Rep.
6
,
36176
(
2016
).
15.
F. S.
Foster
,
K. A.
Harasiewicz
, and
M. D.
Sherar
,
IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control
47
,
1363
(
2000
).
16.
L.
Li
,
M.
Zhang
,
M.
Rong
, and
W.
Ruan
,
RSC Adv.
4
,
3938
(
2013
).
17.
K.
Koga
and
H.
Ohigashi
,
J. Appl. Phys.
59
,
2142
(
1986
).
18.
M. D.
Sherar
and
F. S.
Foster
,
Ultrason. Imaging
11
,
75
(
1989
).
19.
R. I.
Haque
,
R.
Vié
,
M.
Germainy
,
L.
Valbin
,
P.
Benaben
, and
X.
Boddaert
,
Flexible Printed Electron.
1
,
015001
(
2015
).
20.
S.-W.
Jung
,
S.-M.
Yoon
,
S. Y.
Kang
, and
B.-G.
Yu
,
Integr. Ferroelectr.
100
,
198
(
2008
).
21.
See https://peoplesense.irlynx.com for more information about Irlynx (2020).
22.
See https://www.lfoundry.com for more information about LFoundry (2020).
23.
L.
Fritsch
,
P.
Gibert
, and
C.
Vacher
, WIPO patent 2009083416A1 (2009).
24.
D.
Mampallil
and
H. B.
Eral
,
Adv. Colloid Interface Sci.
252
,
38
(
2018
).
25.
C.
Vacher
, “
Intégration Du Copolymères P(VDF-TrFE) à Une Nouvelle Technologie de Capteurs Pyroélectriques: Application à La Détection d’empreintes Digitales
,”
Ph.D. thesis
(
Université Montpellier
,
2007
), p.
2
.
26.
F.
Bauer
,
Ferroelectrics
49
,
231
(
1983
).
27.
R.
Krimholtz
,
D. A.
Leedom
, and
G. L.
Matthaei
,
Electron. Lett.
6
,
398
(
1970
).
28.
S. J. H.
Van Kervel
and
J. M.
Thijssen
,
Ultrasonics
21
,
134
(
1983
).
29.
M.
Lethiecq
,
F.
Patat
,
L.
Pourcelot
, and
L. P.
Tran-Huu-Hue
,
IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control
40
,
232
(
1993
).
30.
P.
Marechal
,
F.
Levassort
,
J.
Holc
,
L.
Tran-Huu-Hue
,
M.
Kosec
, and
M.
Lethiecq
,
IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control
53
,
1524
(
2006
).
31.
A.
Bardaine
,
P.
Boy
,
P.
Belleville
,
O.
Acher
, and
F.
Levassort
,
J. Eur. Ceram. Soc.
28
,
1649
(
2008
).
32.
M.
Lukacs
,
T.
Olding
,
M.
Sayer
,
R.
Tasker
, and
S.
Sherrit
,
J. Appl. Phys.
85
,
2835
(
1999
).
33.
E.
Bellet-Amalric
and
J. F.
Legrand
,
Eur. Phys. J. B
3
,
225
(
1998
).
34.
F.
Levassort
,
L. P.
Tran Huu Hue
,
G.
Feuillard
, and
M.
Lethiecq
,
Ultrasonics
36
,
41
(
1998
).
35.
F. S.
Foster
,
C. J.
Pavlin
,
K. A.
Harasiewicz
,
D. A.
Christopher
, and
D. H.
Turnbull
,
Ultrasound Med. Biol.
26
,
1
(
2000
).
36.
J. A.
Ketterling
,
F. L.
Lizzi
,
O.
Aristizábal
, and
D. H.
Turnbull
,
IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control
52
,
672
(
2005
).
37.
H.-O.
Kreiss
and
J.
Oliger
,
Tellus
24
,
199
(
1972
).
38.
M.
Ghrist
,
B.
Fornberg
, and
T. A.
Driscoll
,
SIAM J. Numer. Anal.
38
,
718
(
2000
).
39.
C.
Batifol
,
S.
Calle
,
P.
Marechal
,
M.
Lethiecq
, and
F.
Levassort
, in
IEEE Ultrasonics Symposium, 2005
(
IEEE,
2005
), pp.
1660
1663
.
41.
J.-P.
Berenger
,
J. Comput. Phys.
114
,
185
(
1994
).
42.
E.
Dieulesaint
and
E.
Royer
,
Ondes élastiques dans les solides. Tome 1, Propagation libre et guidée
(Elsevier Masson, Paris,
1996
).
43.
J.
Lascaud
,
T.
Defforge
,
G.
Gautier
, and
D.
Certon
,
Ultrasonics
96
,
196
(
2019
).
You do not currently have access to this content.