This work sets the basis for nonlinear homodyne and heterodyne photothermal radiometry (PTR) as a form of active pyrometry. The intrinsic nonlinearity of thermo-optical conversion described by blackbody radiation laws generates intermodulation harmonics, among which the sum and difference frequencies are easily measured by lock-in amplifiers connected in series or in parallel. Double modulation heterodyne PTR avoids superposition with harmonics generated in nonlinear homodyne PTR by laser modulation distortion. Useful expressions are derived for the determination of temperature variations of the target relative to its absolute temperature, independently of emissivity. In order to determine one or the other temperature, calibration of one of them is necessary. The effects of spectral and temperature dependence of emissivity are also discussed. Local self-heating of a glassy carbon target could be estimated using two superposed laser sources modulated at 30 Hz and 40 Hz. This application opens the path to perform temperature-dependent thermophysical properties’ investigations in a non-contact manner, with a simple setup. Absolute temperature was determined on the surface of a Peltier element modulated at 0.1 Hz, at the location irradiated by a laser beam modulated at 1 Hz. Three data reduction methods (series, parallel, and transient configurations) yielded concordant results.
Nonlinear heterodyne photothermal radiometry for emissivity-free pyrometry
Note: This paper is part of the Special Topic on Photothermics.
Mihai Chirtoc, Austin Fleming, Nicolas Horny, Heng Ban; Nonlinear heterodyne photothermal radiometry for emissivity-free pyrometry. J. Appl. Phys. 21 October 2020; 128 (15): 153101. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0020406
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