The effect of carbon onions or onionlike carbons (OLCs) as a dopant on the supercapacitive properties of titanium carbide MXene (Ti2C) has been studied. The materials were characterized using x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and electrochemical techniques, including cyclic voltammetry, constant current charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the introduction of OLCs into the layered MXene structure increases the long-term cycling stability of the material from ∼80% to >95%. It was also found to increase the supercapacitance of MXene in the 5% quantity from ca. 104 to 148 F/g but decreased the supercapacitance in the 10% quantity from ca. 104 to 92 F/g. The power and energy density improved in the 5% OLC-doped sample compared to the pristine sample for current densities between 0.5 and 5 A/g. Overall, this study showcased the unique ability of OLCs to improve the electrochemical performance of a Ti2C-based supercapacitor.

1.
M.
Winter
and
R. J.
Brodd
,
Chem. Rev.
104
,
4245
4270
(
2004
).
2.
G. Z.
Chen
,
Prog. Natl. Sci. Mater. Int.
23
,
245
255
(
2013
).
3.
M.
Zeiger
,
N.
Jäckel
,
V. N.
Mochalin
, and
V.
Presser
,
J. Mater. Chem. A
4
,
3172
3196
(
2016
).
4.
F.
Wang
,
X.
Wu
,
X.
Yuan
,
Z.
Liu
,
Y.
Zhang
,
L.
Fu
,
Y.
Zhu
,
Q.
Zhou
,
Y.
Wu
, and
W.
Huang
,
Chem. Soc. Rev.
46
,
6816
6854
(
2017
).
5.
M.
Naguib
,
V. N.
Mochalin
,
M. W.
Barsoum
, and
Y.
Gogotsi
,
Adv. Mater.
26
,
992
1005
(
2014
).
6.
J.
Luo
,
W.
Zhang
,
H.
Yuan
,
C.
Jin
,
L.
Zhang
,
H.
Huang
,
C.
Liang
,
Y.
Xia
,
J.
Zhang
,
Y.
Gan
, and
X.
Tao
,
ACS Nano
11
,
2459
2469
(
2017
).
7.
S. A.
Melchior
,
K.
Raju
,
I. S.
Ike
,
R. M.
Erasmus
,
G.
Kabongo
,
I.
Sigalas
,
S. E.
Iyuke
, and
K. I.
Ozoemena
,
J. Electrochem. Soc.
165
,
A501
A511
(
2018
).
8.
Y.
Sun
,
D.
Chen
, and
Z.
Liang
,
Mater. Today Energy
5
,
22
36
(
2017
).
9.
B.
Anasori
,
M.
Dahlqvist
,
J.
Halim
,
E. J.
Moon
,
J.
Lu
,
B. C.
Hosler
,
E. N.
Caspi
,
S. J.
May
,
L.
Hultman
,
P.
Eklund
,
J.
Rosén
, and
M. W.
Barsoum
,
J. Appl. Phys.
118
,
094304
(
2015
).
10.
M.
Naguib
,
M.
Naguib
,
M.
Kurtoglu
,
V.
Presser
,
J.
Lu
,
J.
Niu
,
M.
Heon
,
L.
Hultman
,
Y.
Gogotsi
, and
M. W.
Barsoum
,
Adv. Mater.
23
,
4248
4253
(
2011
).
11.
D. C.
Grahame
,
Chem. Rev.
41
,
441
501
(
1947
).
12.
M. R.
Lukatskaya
,
S.-M.
Bak
,
X.
Yu
,
X.-Q.
Yang
,
M. W.
Barsoum
, and
Y.
Gogotsi
,
Adv. Energy Mater.
5
,
1500589
(
2015
).
13.
Z.
Ling
,
C. E.
Ren
,
M.-Q.
Zhao
,
J.
Yang
,
J. M.
Giammarco
,
J.
Qiu
,
M. W.
Barsoum
, and
Y.
Gogotsi
,
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci.
111
,
16676
16681
(
2014
).
14.
O. O.
Mykhaylyk
,
Y. M.
Solonin
,
D. N.
Batchelder
, and
R.
Brydson
,
J. Appl. Phys.
97
,
074302
(
2005
).
15.
J. K.
McDonough
, “
Onion-like carbon for electrochemical capacitors
,”
Ph.D. thesis
(
Drexel University
,
2014
).
16.
J. K.
McDonough
and
Y.
Gogotsi
,
Interface Mag.
22
,
61
66
(
2013
).
17.
R. B.
Rakhi
,
B.
Ahmed
,
D.
Anjum
, and
H. N.
Alshareef
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
8
,
18806
18814
(
2016
).
18.
M. D.
Stoller
and
R. S.
Ruoff
,
Energy Environ. Sci.
3
,
1294
(
2010
).
19.
B. E.
Conway
,
Electrochemical Supercapacitors: Scientific Fundamentals and Technological Applications
(
Springer
,
1999
), p.
734
.
20.
K.
Makgopa
 et al 
J. Mater. Chem. A
3
,
3480
(
2015
).
21.
B.
Anasori
,
M. R.
Lukatskaya
, and
Y.
Gogotsi
,
Nat. Rev. Mater.
2
, 16098 (
2017
).
22.
F.
Liu
,
A.
Zhou
,
J.
Chen
,
H.
Zhang
,
J.
Cao
,
L.
Wang
, and
Q.
Hu
,
Adsorption
22
,
915
922
(
2016
).
23.
V.
Presser
,
M.
Naguib
,
L.
Chaput
,
A.
Togo
,
G.
Hugd
, and
M. W.
Barsoum
,
J. Raman Spectrosc.
43
,
168
172
(
2012
).
24.
J.
Wang
,
J.
Polleux
,
J.
Lim
, and
B.
Dunn
,
J. Phys. Chem. C
111
,
14925
14931
(
2007
).
25.
C. C.
Raj
and
R.
Prasanth
,
J. Electrochem. Soc.
165
,
E345
E358
(
2018
).
26.
S. A.
Shah
,
T.
Habib
,
H.
Gao
,
P.
Gao
,
W.
Sun
,
M. J.
Green
, and
M.
Radovic
,
Chem. Commun.
53
,
400
403
(
2017
).
27.
W.
Gu
,
N.
Peters
, and
G.
Yushin
,
Carbon
53
,
292
301
(
2013
).
28.
A. T.
Chidembo
,
K. I.
Ozoemena
,
B. O.
Agboola
,
V.
Gupta
,
G. G.
Wildgoose
, and
R. G.
Compton
,
Energy Environ. Sci.
3
,
228
236
(
2010
).
29.
K. I.
Ozoemena
,
N. S.
Mathebula
,
J.
Pillay
,
G.
Toschi
, and
J. A.
Verschoor
,
Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.
12
,
345
357
(
2010
).
30.
A.
Lasia
,
Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy and Its Applications
(Springer,
2014
), pp.
177
195,
ISBN: 9781461489337.
You do not currently have access to this content.