Diffusion profiles of arsenic and antimony in undoped and carbon doped germanium (Ge), respectively, were analysed by means of scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM). Whereas earlier secondary ion mass spectrometry analyses have determined the distribution of the chemical concentration of dopants and carbon, the electrically active defect concentration is quantified by SSRM using appropriate calibration samples and a preparation technique that reduces the surface roughness and its density of electronic states. Pronounced differences between the chemical and electrical dopant profiles are observed and consistently described by the formation of inactive dopant defect complexes in the framework of the vacancy mediated diffusion of donor atoms in Ge. This reveals that donor deactivation occurs during dopant diffusion at elevated temperatures.
Quantitative scanning spreading resistance microscopy on n-type dopant diffusion profiles in germanium and the origin of dopant deactivation
Jan K. Prüßing, Gerry Hamdana, Dominique Bougeard, Erwin Peiner, Hartmut Bracht; Quantitative scanning spreading resistance microscopy on n-type dopant diffusion profiles in germanium and the origin of dopant deactivation. J. Appl. Phys. 28 February 2019; 125 (8): 085105. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5066617
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