Sodium niobate (NaNbO3) powders and nanowires were synthesized and subsequently used for preparing composites with polyvinylidene-fluoride (PVDF) using the cold sintering technique in the weight ratio of 80:20 (ceramic:polymer). Phase purity of ceramic powders and nanowires was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. Different phases of PVDF formed under various process parameters were also identified. Thermo-gravimetric analysis was performed in order to check the thermal stability of the composites. SEM was used to study the surface morphology of these samples, and energy dispersive x-ray analysis was also carried out in order to view the distribution of polymers in the composites. Furthermore, the formation of the ceramic matrix in the composites was verified and distribution of polymers in the ceramic matrix was examined by micro-computed tomographic analysis. Dielectric constant and loss tangent were measured and compared with the theoretically calculated values. Theoretical breakdown strength and energy density were calculated and were found to be as high as 1345 kV/cm and 6.1 J/cm3, respectively, at room temperature. Discharge efficiency of 64% was obtained for annealed nanocomposites.

1.
H.
Guo
,
A.
Baker
,
J.
Guo
, and
C. A.
Randall
,
ACS Nano
10
,
10606
(
2016
).
2.
H.
Guo
,
J.
Guo
,
A.
Baker
, and
C. A.
Randall
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
8
,
20909
(
2016
).
3.
J.
Guo
,
H.
Guo
,
A. L.
Baker
,
M. T.
Lanagan
,
E. R.
Kupp
,
G. L.
Messing
, and
C. A.
Randall
,
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.
55
,
11457
(
2016
).
4.
J.
Guo
,
S. S.
Berbano
,
H.
Guo
,
A. L.
Baker
,
M. T.
Lanagan
, and
C. A.
Randall
,
Adv. Funct. Mater.
26
,
7115
(
2016
).
5.
H.
Guo
,
A.
Baker
,
J.
Guo
, and
C. A.
Randall
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
99
,
3489
(
2016
).
6.
D.
Wang
,
H.
Guo
,
C. S.
Morandi
,
C. A.
Randall
, and
S.
Trolier-McKinstry
,
APL Mater.
6
,
016101
(
2018
).
7.
M. N.
Rahaman
,
Sintering of Ceramics
(
CRC Press
,
2007
).
8.
W.
Stumm
,
Chemistry of the Solid-Water Interface: Processes at the Mineral-Water and Particle-Water Interface in Natural Systems
(
John Wiley & Son Inc.
,
1992
).
9.
V. K.
Thakur
and
R. K.
Gupta
,
Chem. Rev.
116
,
4260
(
2016
).
10.
Y.
Wang
,
X.
Zhou
,
Q.
Chen
,
B.
Chu
, and
Q.
Zhang
,
IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul.
17
,
1036
(
2010
).
11.
P.
Barber
,
S.
Balasubramanian
,
Y.
Anguchamy
,
S.
Gong
,
A.
Wibowo
,
H.
Gao
,
H.
Ploehn
, and
H.-C.
Zur Loye
,
Materials
2
,
1697
(
2009
).
12.
L.
Zhang
and
Z.-Y.
Cheng
,
J. Adv. Dielectr.
01
,
389
(
2011
).
13.
H.
Luo
,
D.
Zhang
,
C.
Jiang
,
X.
Yuan
,
C.
Chen
, and
K.
Zhou
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
7
,
8061
(
2015
).
14.
H.
Luo
,
C.
Ma
,
X.
Zhou
,
S.
Chen
, and
D.
Zhang
,
Macromolecules
50
,
5132
(
2017
).
15.
D.
Zhang
,
W.
Liu
,
R.
Guo
,
K.
Zhou
, and
H.
Luo
,
Adv. Sci.
5
,
1700512
(
2017
).
16.
H.
Luo
,
J.
Roscow
,
X.
Zhou
,
S.
Chen
,
X.
Han
,
K.
Zhou
,
D.
Zhang
, and
C. R.
Bowen
,
J. Mater. Chem. A
5
,
7091
(
2017
).
17.
V. F.
Janas
and
A.
Safari
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
78
,
2945
(
1995
).
18.
F.
Croce
,
G. B.
Appetecchi
,
L.
Persi
, and
B.
Scrosati
,
Nature
394
,
456
(
1998
).
19.
M.
Arbatti
,
X.
Shan
, and
Z.
Cheng
,
Adv. Mater.
19
,
1369
(
2007
).
20.
M. T.
Sebastian
and
H.
Jantunen
,
Int. J. Appl. Ceram. Technol.
7
,
415
(
2010
).
22.
H.
Ogihara
,
C.A.
Randall
, and
S.
Trolier-McKinstry
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
92
,
1719
(
2009
).
23.
D. P.
Shay
,
N. J.
Podraza
,
N. J.
Donnelly
, and
C. A.
Randall
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
95
,
1348
(
2012
).
24.
H.
Lee
,
J. R.
Kim
,
M. J.
Lanagan
,
S.
Trolier-Mckinstry
, and
C. A.
Randall
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
96
,
1209
(
2013
).
25.
C. N. W.
Darlington
and
K. S.
Knight
,
Phys. B Condens. Matter
266
,
368
(
1999
).
26.
27.
M.
Tyunina
,
A.
Dejneka
,
D.
Rytz
,
I.
Gregora
,
F.
Borodavka
,
M.
Vondracek
, and
J.
Honolka
,
J. Phys. Condens. Matter
26
,
125901
(
2014
).
28.
S. K.
Mishra
,
N.
Choudhury
,
S. L.
Chaplot
,
P. S. R.
Krishna
, and
R.
Mittal
,
Phys. Rev. B
76
,
024110
(
2007
).
29.
X.
Yuan
and
T. C. M.
Chung
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
98
,
62901
(
2011
).
30.
S.
Wu
,
W.
Li
,
M.
Lin
,
Q.
Burlingame
,
Q.
Chen
,
A.
Payzant
,
K.
Xiao
, and
Q. M.
Zhang
,
Adv. Mater.
25
,
1734
(
2013
).
31.
Y.
Wang
,
X.
Zhou
,
M.
Lin
, and
Q. M.
Zhang
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
94
,
202905
(
2009
).
32.
W.
Li
,
Q.
Meng
,
Y.
Zheng
,
Z.
Zhang
, and
W.
Xia
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
96
,
192905
(
2010
).
34.
M.
Li
,
H. J.
Wondergem
,
M. J.
Spijkman
,
K.
Asadi
,
I.
Katsouras
,
P. W. M.
Blom
, and
D. M.
De Leeuw
,
Nat. Mater.
12
,
433
(
2013
).
35.
X.
Hao
,
J. Adv. Dielectr.
3
,
1330001
(
2013
).
36.
W. M.
Prest
and
D. J.
Luca
,
J. Appl. Phys.
49
,
5042
(
1978
).
37.
W. M.
Prest
, Jr.
and
D. J.
Luca
, “
Process for controlled phase transformation of alpha phase of poly(vinylidene fluoride) to the gamma phase
,”
U.S. patent
4,095,020A (13 June 1978).
38.
R.
Gregorio
, Jr.
and
M.
Cestari
,
J. Polym. Sci. Part B Polym. Phys.
32
,
859
(
1994
).
39.
P.
Martins
,
A. C.
Lopes
, and
S.
Lanceros-Mendez
,
Prog. Polym. Sci.
39
,
683
(
2014
).
40.
R.
Gregorio
,
J. Appl. Polym. Sci.
100
,
3272
(
2006
).
41.
V. K.
Thakur
,
M.-F.
Lin
,
E. J.
Tan
, and
P. S.
Lee
,
J. Mater. Chem.
22
,
5951
(
2012
).
42.
H.
Rekik
,
Z.
Ghallabi
,
I.
Royaud
,
M.
Arous
,
G.
Seytre
,
G.
Boiteux
, and
A.
Kallel
,
Compos. Part B Eng.
45
,
1199
(
2013
).
43.
G.
Kortaberria
,
A.
Jimeno
,
P.
Arruti
,
K.
de la Caba
,
P.
Remiro
,
A.
Eceiza
, and
I.
Mondragon
,
Macromol. Symp.
239
,
152
(
2006
).
44.
K.
Nakagawa
and
Y.
Ishida
,
J. Polym. Sci. Part A-2 Polym. Phys.
11
,
2153
(
1973
).
45.
J.
Mijovic
,
J.-W.
Sy
, and
T. K.
Kwei
,
Macromolecules
30
,
3042
(
1997
).
46.
M.
Arous
,
I.
Ben Amor
,
A.
Kallel
,
Z.
Fakhfakh
, and
G.
Perrier
,
J. Phys. Chem. Solids
68
,
1405
(
2007
).
47.
N.
Karasawa
and
W. A.
Goddard
,
Macromolecules
28
,
6765
(
1995
).
48.
N.
Jayasundere
and
B. V.
Smith
,
J. Appl. Phys.
73
,
2462
(
1993
).
49.
J. Y.
Li
,
L.
Zhang
, and
S.
Ducharme
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
90
,
132901
(
2007
).
50.
E. A.
Wood
,
R. C.
Miller
, and
J. P.
Remeika
,
Acta Crystallogr.
15
,
1273
(
1962
).
51.
I.
Lefkowitz
,
K.
Łukaszewicz
, and
H. D.
Megaw
,
Acta Crystallogr.
20
,
670
(
1966
).
52.
H.
Shimizu
,
H.
Guo
,
S. E.
Reyes-Lillo
,
Y.
Mizuno
,
K. M.
Rabe
, and
C. A.
Randall
,
Dalton Trans.
44
,
10763
(
2015
).
53.
J. F.
Scott
,
B. M.
Melnick
,
L. D.
McMillan
, and
C. A. P.
De Araujo
,
Integr. Ferroelectr.
3
,
225
(
1993
).
54.
T.
Baiatu
,
R.
Waser
, and
K.-H.
Hardtl
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
73
,
1663
(
1990
).
55.
R.
Waser
, in Science and Technology of Electroceramic Thin Films, edited by O. Auciello and R. Waser (Springer, 1995), p. 223.
56.
M.
Stewart
,
M. G.
Cain
, and
D. A.
Hall
, Ferroelectric Hysteresis Measurement and Analysis (
National Physical Laboratory Teddington
,
1999
).
57.

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.