The design of a self-complementary metallic checkerboard pattern achieves broadband, dispersion-less, and maximized absorption, concentrating in deep subwavelength resistive connections between squares, without any theoretical limitation on the energy absorbing area. Here, we experimentally and numerically investigate the electromagnetic response in the limit of extremely small connections. We show that finite conductivity and randomness in a near-self-complementary checkerboard pattern play a crucial role in producing a frequency-independent energy loss in the terahertz frequency region. Here, metals behave like an almost perfect conductor. When the checkerboard pattern approaches the perfect self-complementary pattern, the perfect conductor approximation spontaneously breaks down, owing to the finite conductivity at the nano-scale connection, leading to broadband absorption. It is also shown that the random connections between metallic squares also lead to broadband and maximized energy loss through scattering loss, similar to finite conductivity.

1.
T. K.
Wu
,
Frequency Selective Surface and Grid Array
(
Wiley
,
1995
).
2.
H.-T.
Chen
,
J. F.
O'Hara
,
A. K.
Azad
, and
A. J.
Taylor
,
Laser Photonics Rev.
5
,
513
(
2011
).
3.
W. L.
Barnes
,
A.
Dereux
, and
T. W.
Ebbesen
,
Nature
424
,
824
(
2003
).
4.
Y.
Mushiake
,
Self-Complementary Antennas
(
Springer
,
London
,
1996
).
5.
Y.
Urade
,
Y.
Nakata
,
T.
Nakanishi
, and
M.
Kitano
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
114
,
237401
(
2015
).
6.
Y.
Wang
,
T.
Sun
,
T.
Paudel
,
Y.
Zhang
,
Z.
Ren
, and
K.
Kempa
,
Nano Lett.
12
,
440
(
2012
).
7.
Y.
Urade
,
Y.
Nakata
,
K.
Okimura
,
T.
Nakanishi
,
F.
Miyamaru
,
M. W.
Takeda
, and
M.
Kitano
,
Opt. Express
24
,
4405
(
2016
).
8.
Y.
Nakata
,
Y.
Urade
,
K.
Okimura
,
T.
Nakanishi
,
F.
Miyamaru
,
M. W.
Takeda
, and
M.
Kitano
,
Phys. Rev. Appl.
6
,
44022
(
2016
).
9.
C. M.
Watts
,
X.
Liu
, and
W. J.
Padilla
,
Adv. Mater.
24
,
OP98
(
2012
).
10.
R. C.
Compton
,
J. C.
Macfarlane
,
L. B.
Whitbourn
,
M. M.
Blanco
, and
R. C.
McPhedran
,
Opt. Acta
31
,
515
(
1984
).
11.
K.
Takano
,
F.
Miyamaru
,
K.
Akiyama
,
H.
Miyazaki
,
M. W.
Takeda
,
Y.
Abe
,
Y.
Tokuda
,
H.
Ito
, and
M.
Hangyo
,
Opt. Express
22
,
24787
(
2014
).
12.
J. D.
Edmunds
,
M. C.
Taylor
,
A. P.
Hibbins
,
J. R.
Sambles
, and
I. J.
Youngs
,
J. Appl. Phys.
107
,
103108
(
2010
).
13.
K.
Kempa
,
Phys. Status Solidi RRL
4
,
218
(
2010
).
14.
D.
Jackson
,
Classical Electrodynamics
, 3rd ed. (
John Wiley & Sons
,
New York
,
1999
).
15.
Y.
Nakata
,
Y.
Urade
,
T.
Nakanishi
, and
M.
Kitano
,
Phys. Rev. B
88
,
205138
(
2013
).
16.
M.
Hangyo
,
M.
Tani
, and
T.
Nagashima
,
Int. J. Infrared Millimeter Waves
26
,
1661
(
2005
).
17.
R.
Ulrich
,
Infrared Phys.
7
,
37
(
1967
).
18.
A.
Thoman
,
A.
Kern
,
H.
Helm
, and
M.
Walther
,
Phys. Rev. B
77
(
1
),
18
(
2008
).
19.
J.
Kröll
,
J.
Darmo
, and
K.
Unterrainer
,
Opt. Express
15
,
6552
(
2007
).
20.
M. A.
Ordal
,
L. L.
Long
,
R. J.
Bell
,
S. E.
Bell
,
R. R.
Bell
,
R. W.
Alexander
, and
C. A.
Ward
,
Appl. Opt.
22
,
1099
(
1983
).
21.
M.
Dressel
and
G.
Gruner
,
Electrodynamics of Solids
(
Cambridge University Press
,
Cambridge
,
2002
).
22.
N.
Laman
and
D.
Grischkowsky
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
93
,
51105
(
2008
).
23.
Y.
Urade
,
Y.
Nakata
,
T.
Nakanishi
, and
M.
Kitano
,
Opt. Lett.
41
,
4472
(
2016
).
24.
B.
Tremain
,
C. J.
Durrant
,
I. E.
Carter
,
A. P.
Hibbins
, and
J. R.
Sambles
,
Sci. Rep.
5
,
16608
(
2015
).
25.
C.
Davis
,
D.
McKenzie
, and
R.
McPhedran
,
Opt. Commun.
85
,
70
(
1991
).
26.
D.
Stauffer
and
A.
Aharony
,
Introduction to Percolation Theory
, 2nd ed. (
Taylor & Francis
,
London
,
1992
).
27.
R. G.
Hohlfeld
and
N.
Cohen
,
Fractals
7
,
79
(
1999
).
28.
A. C.
Strikwerda
,
M.
Zalkovskij
,
K.
Iwaszczuk
,
D. L.
Lorenzen
, and
P. U.
Jepsen
,
Opt. Express
23
,
11586
(
2015
).
29.
X.
Fang
,
M.
Lun Tseng
,
J.-Y.
Ou
,
K. F.
MacDonald
,
D.
Ping Tsai
, and
N. I.
Zheludev
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
104
,
141102
(
2014
).
30.
T.
Roger
,
S.
Vezzoli
,
E.
Bolduc
,
J.
Valente
,
J. J. F.
Heitz
,
J.
Jeffers
,
C.
Soci
,
J.
Leach
,
C.
Couteau
,
N. I.
Zheludev
, and
D.
Faccio
,
Nat. Commun.
6
,
7031
(
2015
).
You do not currently have access to this content.