Third order nonlinearities of Mn(III)-Phthalocyanine chloride in dimethyl-sulphoxide under 50 fs pulses, operating at 94 MHz, by eliminating cumulative thermal effects have been investigated and reported by us. Modifications were done in data acquisition during Z-scan experiment, which included recording of time evolution waveform traces in an oscilloscope and not collection of Z versus transmission and utilization of a chopper of a suitable duty cycle. Time evolution traces were further processed analytically through MatLab® programming, which yielded Z-scan traces similar to what was obtained with single shot 50 fs pulse. We observed reverse saturable absorption at 800 nm owing to excited state absorption. We show that the nonlinear refractive index (γ) and nonlinear absorption coefficient (β) are over estimated almost 100 times, when MHz pulses are used compared to a situation, where thermo-optical nonlinearities are accounted. Illumination and dark periods are carefully set in a way, so that the sample is able to completely recover its initial temperature before arrival of the next pulse. Magnitudes of γ and β were found to be −(6.5–4.9) × 10−16 m2/W and (5.4–6.2) × 10−10 m/W under the MHz condition, whereas they were −(0.18−2.2) × 10−18 m2/W and (9.5–15) × 10−12 m/W under the thermally managed condition, respectively. To reveal the associated fast nonlinearity, femtosecond transient absorption experiment was performed, which inferred excited state absorption and ground state bleaching across the 450–780 nm region. Dynamics associated with these processes are reported along with fluorescence lifetime obtained through the TCSPC technique. Structure optimization using TDDFT calculations and HOMO-LUMO gaps with orbital pictures are also shown.
Extracting third order optical nonlinearities of Mn(III)-Phthalocyanine chloride using high repetition rate femtosecond pulses
Krishnandu Makhal, Paresh Mathur, Sidharth Maurya, Debabrata Goswami; Extracting third order optical nonlinearities of Mn(III)-Phthalocyanine chloride using high repetition rate femtosecond pulses. J. Appl. Phys. 7 February 2017; 121 (5): 053103. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4974966
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