The diffusion and activation of arsenic implanted into germanium at 40 keV with maximum concentrations below and above the solid solubility (8 × 1019 cm−3) have been studied, both experimentally and theoretically, after excimer laser annealing (λ = 308 nm) in the melting regime with different laser energy densities and single or multiple pulses. Arsenic is observed to diffuse similarly for different fluences with no out-diffusion and no formation of pile-up at the maximum melt depth. The diffusion profiles have been satisfactorily simulated by assuming two diffusivity states of As in the molten Ge and a non-equilibrium segregation at the maximum melt depth. The electrical activation is partial and decreases with increasing the chemical concentration with a saturation of the active concentration at 1 × 1020 cm−3, which represents a new record for the As-doped Ge system.

1.
ITRS, (
2012
), http://www.itrs.net.
2.
C.
Clays
and
E.
Simoen
,
Germanium-Based Technologies—From Materials to Devices
(
Elsevier
,
Amsterdam
,
2007
).
3.
E.
Simoen
,
J.
Mitard
,
G.
Hellings
,
G.
Eneman
,
B.
De Jaeger
,
L.
Witters
,
B.
Vincent
,
R.
Loo
,
A.
Delabie
,
S.
Sioncke
,
M.
Caymax
, and
C.
Claeys
,
Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.
15
,
588
(
2012
).
4.
G.
Hellings
,
E.
Rosseel
,
T.
Clarysse
,
D. H.
Petersen
,
O.
Hansen
,
P. F.
Nielsen
,
E.
Simoen
,
G.
Eneman
,
B.
De Jaeger
,
T.
Hoffmann
,
K.
De Meyer
, and
W.
Vandervorst
,
Microelectron. Eng.
88
,
347
350
(
2011
).
5.
E.
Simoen
,
A.
Satta
,
A.
D'Amore
,
T.
Janssens
,
T.
Clarysse
,
K.
Martens
,
B.
De Jaeger
,
A.
Benedetti
,
I.
Hoflijk
,
B.
Brijs
,
M.
Meuris
, and
W.
Vandervorst
,
Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.
9
,
634
639
(
2006
).
6.
J. M.
Poate
and
J. W.
Mayer
,
Laser Annealing of Semiconductors
(
Academic Press
,
New York
,
1982
).
7.
S.
Heo
,
S.
Baek
,
D.
Lee
,
M.
Hasan
,
H.
Jung
,
J.
Lee
, and
H.
Hwang
,
Electrochem. Solid State Lett.
9
(
4
),
G136
(
2006
).
8.
E.
Bruno
,
G. G.
Scapellato
,
A.
La Magna
,
M.
Cuscuna
,
E.
Napolitani
,
S.
Boninelli
,
F.
Priolo
,
G.
Fortunato
, and
V.
Privitera
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
101
,
172110
(
2012
).
9.
G.
Impellizzeri
,
E.
Napolitani
,
S.
Boninelli
,
G.
Fisicaro
,
M.
Cuscunà
,
R.
Milazzo
,
A.
La Magna
,
G.
Fortunato
,
F.
Priolo
, and
V.
Privitera
,
J. Appl. Phys.
113
,
113505
(
2013
).
10.
V. I.
Fistul
,
Impurities in Semiconductors: Solubility, Migration, and Interactions
(
CRC Press
,
Florida
,
2004
), p.
157
.
11.
G.
Impellizzeri
,
E.
Napolitani
,
R.
Milazzo
,
S.
Milazzo
,
M.
Cuscunà
,
G.
Fisicaro
,
A.
La Magna
,
G.
Fortunato
,
F.
Priolo
, and
V.
Privitera
,
Phys. Status Solidi A
211
,
122
125
(
2014
).
12.
G.
Hellings
,
E.
Rosseel
,
E.
Simoen
,
D.
Radisic
,
D.
Hjorth Petersen
,
O.
Hansen
,
P.
Folmer Nielsen
,
G.
Zschätzsch
,
A.
Nazir
,
T.
Clarysse
,
W.
Vandervorst
,
Th. Y.
Hoffmann
, and
K.
De Meyer
,
Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.
14
,
H39
(
2011
).
13.
S.
Koffel
,
P.
Scheiblin
,
A.
Claverie
, and
G.
Benassayag
,
J. Appl. Phys.
105
,
013528
(
2009
).
14.
G.
Impellizzeri
,
S.
Mirabella
, and
M. G.
Grimaldi
,
Appl. Phys. A
103
,
323
(
2011
).
15.
K.
Prabhakaran
and
T.
Ogino
,
Surf. Sci.
325
,
263
(
1995
).
16.
V.
Privitera
,
W.
Vandervorst
, and
T.
Clarysse
,
J. Electrochem. Soc.
140
,
262
(
1993
).
17.
T.
Clarysse
,
P.
Eyben
,
T.
Jannsens
,
I.
Hoflijk
,
D.
Vanhearen
,
A.
Satta
,
M.
Meuris
,
W.
Vandervorst
,
J.
Bogdanowicz
, and
G.
Raskin
,
J. Vac. Sci Technol. B
24
,
381
(
2006
).
18.
S. M.
Sze
and
J. C.
Irvin
,
Solid State Electron.
11
,
599
(
1968
).
19.
G.
Fisicaro
,
K.
Huet
,
R.
Negru
,
M.
Hackenberg
,
P.
Pichler
,
N.
Taleb
, and
A.
La Magna
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
110
,
117801
(
2013
).
20.
G.
Fisicaro
,
A.
La Magna
,
G.
Piccitto
, and
V.
Privitera
,
Microelectron. Eng.
88
,
488
491
(
2011
).
21.
G.
Fortunato
,
L.
Mariucci
,
M.
Stanizzi
,
V.
Privitera
,
C.
Spinella
,
S.
Coffa
, and
E.
Napolitani
,
Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process.
4
,
417
(
2001
).
22.
P. M.
Rousseau
,
P. B.
Griffin
, and
J. D.
Plummer
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
65
,
578
(
1994
).
23.
P.
Tsouroutas
,
D.
Tsoukalas
,
I.
Zergioti
,
N.
Cherkashin
, and
A.
Claverie
,
J. Appl. Phys.
105
,
094910
(
2009
).
24.
R. W.
Olesinski
and
G. J.
Abbaschian
,
Bull. Alloy Phase Diagrams
6
(
3
),
250
254
(
1985
).
25.
S. M.
Chathoth
,
B.
Damaschke
,
T.
Unruh
, and
K.
Samwer
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
94
,
221906
(
2009
).
You do not currently have access to this content.