Metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) transistors fabricated with pentacene thin films were characterized by temperature-dependent current-voltage (I-V) characteristics, time-dependent current measurements, and admittance spectroscopy. The channel mobility shows almost linear variation with temperature, suggesting that only shallow traps are present in the semiconductor and at the oxide/semiconductor interface. The admittance spectra feature a broad peak, which can be modeled as the sum of a continuous distribution of relaxation times. The activation energy of this peak is comparable to the polaron binding energy in pentacene. The absence of trap signals in the admittance spectra confirmed that both the semiconductor and the oxide/semiconductor interface have negligible density of deep traps, likely owing to the passivation of SiO2 before pentacene growth. Nevertheless, current instabilities were observed in time-dependent current measurements following the application of gate-voltage pulses. The corresponding activation energy matches the energy of a hole trap in SiO2. We show that hole trapping in the oxide can explain both the temperature and the time dependences of the current instabilities observed in pentacene MOS transistors. The combination of these experimental techniques allows us to derive a comprehensive model for charge transport in hybrid architectures where trapping processes occur at various time and length scales.

1.
W. L.
Kalb
,
T.
Mathis
,
S.
Haas
,
A. F.
Stassen
, and
B.
Batlogg
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
90
,
092104
(
2007
).
2.
T.
Cramer
,
A.
Kyndiah
,
M.
Murgia
,
F.
Leonardi
,
S.
Casalini
, and
F.
Biscarini
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
100
,
143302
(
2012
).
3.
F.
Torricelli
,
K.
O'Neill
,
G. H.
Gelinck
,
K.
Myny
,
J.
Genoe
, and
E.
Cantatore
,
IEEE Trans. Electron Dev.
59
,
1520
(
2012
).
4.
B.
Fraboni
,
A.
Scidà
,
A.
Cavallini
,
P.
Cosseddu
,
A.
Bonfiglio
,
S.
Milita
, and
M.
Nastasi
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
96
,
163302
(
2010
).
5.
P.
Cosseddu
,
S.
Lai
,
M.
Barbaro
, and
A.
Bonfiglio
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
100
,
093305
(
2012
).
6.
T.
Nagase
,
T.
Hamada
,
K.
Tomatsu
,
S.
Yamazaki
,
T.
Kobayashi
,
S.
Murakami
,
K.
Matsukawa
, and
H.
Naito
,
Adv. Mater.
22
,
4706
(
2010
).
7.
J. E.
Goose
,
A.
Killampalli
,
P.
Clancy
, and
J. R.
Engstrom
,
J. Phys. Chem. C
113
,
6068
(
2009
).
8.
J.
Peng
,
Q.
Sun
,
S.
Wang
,
H.-Q.
Wang
, and
W.
Ma
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
103
,
061603
(
2013
).
9.
T.
Sekitani
,
U.
Zschieschang
,
H.
Klauk
, and
T.
Someya
,
Nature Mater.
9
,
1015
(
2010
).
10.
J.
Veres
,
S.
Ogier
,
G.
Lloyd
, and
D. de
Leeuw
,
Chem. Mater.
16
,
4543
(
2004
).
11.
L.
Miozzo
,
A.
Yassar
, and
G.
Horowitz
,
J. Mater. Chem.
20
,
2513
(
2010
).
12.
F.
Todescato
,
R.
Capelli
,
F.
Dinelli
,
M.
Murgia
,
N.
Camaioni
,
M.
Yang
,
R.
Bozio
, and
M.
Muccini
,
J. Phys. Chem. B
112
,
10130
(
2008
).
13.
M.-H.
Yoon
,
C.
Kim
,
A.
Facchetti
, and
T. J.
Marks
,
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
128
,
12851
(
2006
).
14.
P. S.
Abthagir
,
Y.-G.
Ha
,
E.-A.
You
,
S.-H.
Jeong
,
H.-S.
Seo
, and
J.-H.
Choi
,
J. Phys. Chem. B
109
,
23918
(
2005
).
15.
I.
Yagi
,
K.
Tsukagoshi
, and
Y.
Aoyagi
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
86
,
103502
(
2005
).
16.
H.-C.
Tiao
,
Y.-J.
Lee
,
Y.-S.
Liu
,
S.-H.
Lee
,
C.-H.
Li
, and
M.-Y.
Kuo
,
Org. Electron.
13
,
1004
(
2012
).
17.
A.
Sharma
,
S. G. J.
Mathijssen
,
T.
Cramer
,
M.
Kemerink
,
D. M. de
Leeuw
, and
P. A.
Bobbert
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
96
,
103306
(
2010
).
18.
A.
Sharma
,
S. G. J.
Mathijssen
,
E. C. P.
Smits
,
M.
Kemerink
,
D. M. de
Leeuw
, and
P. A.
Bobbert
,
Phys. Rev. B
82
,
075322
(
2010
).
19.
M.
Fiebig
,
D.
Beckmeier
, and
B.
Nickel
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
96
,
083304
(
2010
).
20.
A.
Shehu
,
S. D.
Quiroga
,
P.
D'Angelo
,
C.
Albonetti
,
F.
Borgatti
,
M.
Murgia
,
A.
Scorzoni
,
P.
Stoliar
, and
F.
Biscarini
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
104
,
246602
(
2010
).
21.
N.
Clément
,
S.
Pleutin
,
D.
Guérin
, and
D.
Vuillaume
,
Phys. Rev. B
82
,
035404
(
2010
).
22.
A.
Alkauskas
,
P.
Broqvist
, and
A.
Pasquarello
,
AIP Conf. Proc.
1199
,
79
(
2010
).
23.
D.
Guo
,
T.
Miyadera
,
S.
Ikeda
,
T.
Shimada
, and
K.
Saiki
,
J. Appl. Phys.
102
,
023706
(
2007
).
24.
D.
Guo
,
S.
Ikeda
,
K.
Saiki
,
H.
Miyazoe
, and
K.
Terashima
,
J. Appl. Phys.
99
,
094502
(
2006
);
D.
Guo
,
S.
Ikeda
, and
K.
Saiki
,
J. Appl. Phys.
105
,
113520
(
2009
).
25.
T.
Uemura
,
M.
Yamagishi
,
J.
Soeda
,
Y.
Takatsuki
,
Y.
Okada
,
Y.
Nakazawa
, and
J.
Takeya
,
Phys. Rev. B
85
,
035313
(
2012
).
26.
A. F.
Basile
, A. Kyndiah,
F.
Biscarini
, and
B.
Fraboni
,
J. Appl. Phys.
115
,
244505
(
2014
).
27.
A. R.
Völkel
,
R. A.
Street
, and
D.
Knipp
,
Phys. Rev. B
66
,
195336
(
2002
).
28.
I. Gutiérrez
Lezama
,
M.
Nakano
,
N. A.
Minder
,
Z.
Chen
,
F. V. Di
Girolamo
,
A.
Facchetti
, and
A. F.
Morpurgo
,
Nature Mater.
11
,
788
(
2012
).
29.
W. L.
Kalb
and
B.
Batlogg
,
Phys. Rev. B
81
,
035327
(
2010
).
30.
S. M.
Sze
and
K. K.
Ng
,
Physics of Semiconductor Devices
, 3rd ed. (
Wiley
,
New Jersey
,
2007
), p.
27
.
31.
P.
D'Angelo
,
P.
Stoliar
,
T.
Cramer
,
A.
Cassinese
,
F.
Zerbetto
, and
F.
Biscarini
,
Appl. Phys. A
95
,
55
(
2009
).
32.
D. V.
Lang
,
X.
Chi
,
T.
Siegrist
,
A. M.
Sergent
, and
A. P.
Ramirez
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
93
,
076601
(
2004
);
[PubMed]
H.
Sinno
,
S.
Fabiano
,
X.
Crispin
,
M.
Berggren
, and
I.
Engquist
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
102
,
113306
(
2013
).
33.
A. F.
Basile
,
J.
Rozen
,
J. R.
Williams
,
L. C.
Feldman
, and
P. M.
Mooney
,
J. Appl. Phys.
109
,
064514
(
2011
).
34.
H. C. F.
Martens
,
H. B.
Brom
, and
P. W. M.
Blom
,
Phys. Rev. B
60
,
R8489
(
1999
);
S. W.
Tsang
,
S. K.
So
, and
J. B.
Xu
,
J. Appl. Phys.
99
,
013706
(
2006
).
35.
E. H.
Nicollian
and
A.
Goetzberger
,
Bell Syst. Technol. J.
46
,
1055
(
1967
).
36.
V.
Coropceanu
,
J.
Cornil
,
D. A. da Silva
Filho
,
Y.
Olivier
,
R.
Silbey
, and
J.-L.
Brédas
,
Chem. Rev
107
,
926
(
2007
).
37.
M.
Ullah
,
D. M.
Taylor
,
R.
Schwödiauer
,
H.
Sitter
,
S.
Bauer
,
N. S.
Sariciftci
, and
Th. B.
Singh
,
J. Appl. Phys.
106
,
114505
(
2009
).
38.
J. J.
Brondijk
,
W. S. C.
Roelofs
,
S. G. J.
Mathijssen
,
A.
Shehu
,
T.
Cramer
,
F.
Biscarini
,
P. W. M.
Blom
, and
D. M. de
Leeuw
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
109
,
056601
(
2012
).
39.
P. A.
Bobbert
,
A.
Sharma
,
S. G. J.
Mathijssen
,
M.
Kemerink
, and
D. M. de
Leeuw
,
Adv. Mater.
24
,
1146
(
2012
).
40.
D. L.
Griscom
,
Nucl. Instrum. Methods B
1
,
481
(
1984
).
41.
T.-E.
Tsai
and
D. L.
Griscom
,
J. Non-Cryst. Solids
91
,
170
(
1987
).
42.
M. E.
Levinshtein
,
S. L.
Rumyantsev
, and
M. S.
Shur
,
Handbook Series on Semiconductor Parameters
(
Wiley-Scientific
,
New Jersey
,
1996
), Vol. 1.
43.
V. W.
Ballarotto
,
M.
Breban
,
K.
Siegrist
,
R. J.
Phaneuf
, and
E. D.
Williams
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B
20
,
2514
(
2002
).
44.
V. V.
Afanas'ev
and
A.
Stesmans
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
78
,
2437
(
1997
).
45.
B.
Nickel
,
M.
Fiebig
,
S.
Schiefer
,
M.
Göllner
,
M.
Huth
,
C.
Erlen
, and
P.
Lugli
,
Phys. Status Solidi A
205
,
526
(
2008
);
H.
Fukagawa
,
H.
Yamane
,
T.
Kataoka
,
S.
Kera
,
M.
Nakamura
,
K.
Kudo
, and
N.
Ueno
,
Phys. Rev. B
73
,
245310
(
2006
).
46.
S. G. J.
Mathijssen
,
M.
Cölle
,
H.
Gomes
,
E. C. P.
Smits
,
B. de
Boer
,
I.
McCulloch
,
P. A.
Bobbert
, and
D. M. de
Leeuw
,
Adv. Mater.
19
,
2785
(
2007
).
47.
R. G.
Palmer
,
D. L.
Stein
,
E.
Abrahams
, and
P. W.
Anderson
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
53
,
958
(
1984
).
You do not currently have access to this content.