In this work, we demonstrate that by using H2O based thermal atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3 films, excellent passivation (emitter saturation current density of ∼28 fA/cm2) on industrial highly boron p+-doped silicon emitters (sheet resistance of ∼62 Ω/sq) can be achieved. The surface passivation of the Al2O3 film is activated by a fast industrial high-temperature firing step identical to the one used for screen printed contact formation. Deposition temperatures in the range of 100-300 °C and peak firing temperatures of ∼800 °C (set temperature) are investigated, using commercial-grade 5″ Cz silicon wafers (∼5 Ω cm n-type). It is found that the level of surface passivation after activation is excellent for the whole investigated deposition temperature range. These results are explained by advanced computer simulations indicating that the obtained emitter saturation current densities are quite close to their intrinsic limit value where the emitter saturation current is solely ruled by Auger recombination. The process developed is industrially relevant and robust.

1.
G.
Dingemans
and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A
30
,
040802
(
2012
).
2.
B.
Hoex
,
S. B. S.
Heil
,
E.
Langereis
,
M. C. M.
van de Sanden
, and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
89
,
042112
(
2006
).
3.
B.
Hoex
,
J.
Schmidt
,
R.
Bock
,
P. P.
Altermatt
,
M. C. M.
van de Sanden
, and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
91
,
112107
(
2007
).
4.
B.
Hoex
,
M. C. M.
van de Sanden
,
J.
Schmidt
,
R.
Brendel
, and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
Phys. Status Solidi RRL
6
,
4
(
2012
).
5.
G.
Dingemans
,
R.
Seguin
,
P.
Engelhart
,
M. C. M.
v. d. Sanden
, and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
Phys. Status Solidi RRL
4
,
10
(
2010
).
6.
B.
Hoex
,
J. J. H.
Gielis
,
M. C. M.
van de Sanden
, and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
J. Appl. Phys.
104
,
113703
(
2008
).
7.
G.
Dingemans
,
N. M.
Terlinden
,
D.
Pierreux
,
H. B.
Profijt
,
M. C. M.
van de Sanden
, and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
Electrochem. Solid-State Lett.
14
,
H1
(
2011
).
8.
J.
Schmidt
,
A.
Merkle
,
B.
Hoex
,
M. C. M.
v. d. Sanden
,
W. M. M.
Kessels
, and
R.
Brendel
, in Atomic-layer-deposited aluminum oxide for the surface passivation of high-efficiency silicon solar cells,
San Diego, USA
,
2008
, p.
1
.
9.
S.
Duttagupta
,
F.
Lin
,
M.
Wilson
,
M. B.
Boreland
,
B.
Hoex
, and
A. G.
Aberle
,
Prog. Photovoltaics
1
(
2012
); avaiable at http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/pip.2320/abstract
10.
G.
Dingemans
,
M. C. M.
van de Sanden
, and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
Electrochem. Solid State Lett.
13
,
H76
(
2010
).
11.
P.
Saint-Cast
,
D.
Kania
,
M.
Hofmann
,
J.
Benick
,
J.
Rentsch
, and
R.
Preu
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
95
,
151502
(
2009
).
12.
T. T.
Li
and
A.
Cuevas
,
Phys. Status Solidi RRL
3
,
160
(
2009
).
13.
B.
Hoex
,
Future Photovoltaics
7
,
1
(
2012
).
14.
G.
Dingemans
,
P.
Engelhart
,
R.
Seguin
,
F.
Einsele
,
B.
Hoex
,
M. C. M.
van de Sanden
, and
W. M. M.
Kessels
,
J. Appl. Phys.
106
,
114907
(
2009
).
15.
J.
Schmidt
,
B.
Veith
, and
R.
Brendel
,
Phys. Status Solidi RRL
3
,
287
(
2009
).
16.
A.
Richter
,
J.
Benick
,
M.
Hermle
, and
S. W.
Glunz
,
Phys. Status solidi RRL
5
,
202
(
2011
).
17.
A.
Richter
,
S.
Henneck
,
J.
Benick
,
M.
Horteis
,
M.
Hermle
, and
S. W.
Glunz
, in Firing stable Al2O3/SiNx layer stack passivation for the front side boron emitter of n-type silicon solar cells,
Valencia, Spain
,
2010
, p.
1453
.
18.
J.
Benick
,
A.
Richter
,
M.
Hermle
, and
S. W.
Glunz
,
Phys. Status Solidi RRL
3
,
233
(
2009
).
19.
A.
Richter
,
F. M. M.
Souren
,
D.
Schuldis
,
R. M. W.
Gortzen
,
J.
Benick
,
M.
Hermle
, and
S. W.
Glunz
, in Thermal stability of spatial ALD deposited Al2O3 capped by PECVD SiNx for the passivation of lowly- and highly-doped p-type silicon surfaces,
Frankfurt, Germany
,
2012
, p.
1133
.
20.
A.
Richter
,
J.
Benick
, and
M.
Hermle
,
IEEE J. Photovoltaics
3
,
236
(
2013
).
21.
W.
Kern
and
D. A.
Puotinen
,
RCA Rev.
31
,
187
(
1970
).
22.
D. E.
Kane
and
R. M.
Swanson
, in Measurement of the emitter saturation current by a contactless photoconductivity decay method,
Las Vegas, USA
,
1985
, p.
578
.
23.
R. A.
Sinton
and
R. M.
Swanson
,
IEEE Trans. Electron Devices
ED-34
,
1380
(
1987
).
24.
A. B.
Sproul
and
M. A.
Green
,
J. Appl. Phys.
70
,
846
(
1991
).
25.
C.
Leguijt
,
P.
Lolgen
,
J. A.
Eikelboom
,
A. W.
Weeber
,
F. M.
Schuurmans
,
W. C.
Sinke
,
P. F. A.
Alkemade
,
P. M.
Sarro
,
C. H. M.
Maree
, and
L. A.
Verhoef
,
Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells
40
,
297
(
1996
).
26.
F.
Werner
,
B.
Veith
,
D.
Zielke
,
L.
Kuühnemund
,
C.
Tegenkamp
,
M.
Seibt
,
R.
Brendel
, and
J.
Schmidt
,
J. Appl. Phys.
109
,
113701
(
2011
).
27.
F.
Werner
,
A.
Cosceev
, and
J.
Schmidt
,
J. Appl. Phys.
111
,
073710
(
2012
).
28.
M.
Wilson
,
J.
Lagowski
,
L.
Jastrzebski
,
A.
Savtchouk
, and
V.
Faifer
, in COCOS (corona oxide characterization of semiconductor) non-contact metrology for gate dielectrics,
Maryland, USA
,
2001
, p.
220
.
29.
M.
Wilson
,
D.
Marinskiy
,
A.
Byelyayev
,
J.
D'Amico
,
A.
Findlay
,
L.
Jastrzebski
, and
J.
Lagowski
,
ECS Trans.
3
,
3
(
2006
).
30.
M.
Wilson
,
J.
D'Amico
,
A.
Savtchouk
,
P.
Edelman
,
A.
Findlay
,
L.
Jastrzebski
,
J.
Lagowski
,
K.
Kis-Szabo
,
F.
Korsos
,
A.
Toth
,
A.
Pap
,
R.
Kopecek
, and
K.
Peter
, in Multifunction metrology platform for photovoltaics,
Washington DC, USA
,
2011
, p.
1748
.
31.
B.
Liao
,
R.
Stangl
,
T.
Mueller
,
F.
Lin
,
Z.
Qiu
,
A. J.
Danner
,
H.
Yang
,
A. G.
Aberle
,
C. S.
Bhatia
, and
B.
Hoex
, in Excellent c-Si surface passivation by industrial firing activation of thermal atomic layer deposited Al2O3,
Hangzhou, China
,
2012
, p.
1
.
32.
R. B. M.
Girisch
and
R. P. M. R. F. D.
Keersmaecker
,
IEEE Trans. Electron Devices
35
,
203
(
1988
).
33.
P. A. M.
Dirac
,
Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A
112
,
661
(
1926
).
34.
P. P.
Altermatt
,
J.
r.
O.
Schumacher
,
A.
Cuevas
,
M. J.
Kerr
,
S. W.
Glunz
,
R. R.
King
,
G.
Heiser
, and
A.
Schenk
,
J. Appl. Phys.
92
,
3187
(
2002
).
35.
A.
Schenk
,
J. Appl. Phys.
84
,
3684
(
1998
).
36.
D. B. M.
Klaassen
,
Solid-State Electron.
35
,
953
(
1992
).
37.
P. P.
Altermatt
,
A.
Schenk
,
F.
Geelhaar
, and
G.
Heiser
,
J. Appl. Phys.
93
,
1598
(
2003
).
38.
H.
Mäckel
and
K.
Varner
,
Prog. Photovoltaics
21
,
850
866
(
2013
).
39.
M. J.
Kerr
and
A.
Cuevas
,
J. Appl. Phys.
91
,
2473
(
2002
).
You do not currently have access to this content.