We report room-temperature Raman studies of strained (100) and (311)B GaAs1−xBix epitaxial layers for x ≤ 0.039. The Raman spectra exhibit a two-mode behavior, as well as disorder-activated GaAs-like phonons. The experimental results show that the GaAs-like LO(Γ) mode experiences a strong composition-dependent redshift as a result of alloying. The peak frequency decreases linearly from the value for pure GaAs (∼293 cm−1) with the alloyed Bi fraction x and the introduced in-plane lattice strain ε, by ΔωLO=ΔωalloyΔωstrain. X-ray diffraction measurements are used to determine x and ε allowing Δωalloy to be decoupled and is estimated to be −12(±4) cm−1/x for (100) GaAs1−xBix. ΔωLO is measured to be roughly double for samples grown on (311)B-oriented substrates to that of (100) GaAs. This large difference in redshift is accounted for by examining the Bi induced strain, effects from alloying, and defects formed during high-index (311)B crystal growth.

1.
M.
Henini
,
J.
Ibáñez
,
M.
Schmidbauer
,
M.
Shafi
,
S. V.
Novikov
,
L.
Turyanska
,
S. I.
Molina
,
D. L.
Sales
,
M. F.
Chisholm
, and
J.
Misiewicz
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
91
,
251909
(
2007
).
2.
Z.
Chine
,
H.
Fitouri
,
I.
Zaied
,
A.
Rebey
, and
B.
El Jani
,
J. Cryst. Growth
330
,
35
(
2011
).
3.
H.
Achour
,
S.
Louhibi
,
B.
Amrani
,
A.
Tebboune
, and
N.
Sekkal
,
Superlattices Microstruct.
44
,
223
(
2008
).
4.
A.
Belabbes
,
A.
Zaoui
, and
M.
Ferhat
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
20
,
415221
(
2008
).
5.
R. B.
Lewis
,
D. A.
Beaton
,
X.
Lu
, and
T.
Tiedje
,
J. Cryst. Growth
311
,
1872
(
2009
).
6.
X.
Lu
,
D. A.
Beaton
,
R. B.
Lewis
,
T.
Tiedje
, and
M. B.
Whitwick
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
92
,
192110
(
2008
).
7.
X.
Lu
,
D. A.
Beaton
,
R. B.
Lewis
,
T.
Tiedje
, and
Y.
Zhang
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
95
,
041903
(
2009
).
8.
H.
Jacobsen
,
B.
Puchala
,
T. F.
Kuech
, and
D.
Morgan
,
Phys. Rev. B
86
,
085207
(
2012
).
9.
R. B.
Lewis
,
M.
Masnadi-Shirazi
, and
T.
Tiedje
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
101
,
082112
(
2012
).
10.
S. J.
Sweeney
and
S. R.
Jin
,
J. Appl. Phys.
113
,
043110
(
2013
).
11.
P.
Verma
,
K.
Oe
,
M.
Yamada
,
H.
Harima
,
M.
Herms
, and
G.
Irmer
,
J. Appl. Phys.
89
,
1657
(
2001
).
12.
M. J.
Seong
,
S.
Francoeur
,
S.
Yoon
,
A.
Mascarenhas
,
S.
Tixier
,
M.
Adamcyk
, and
T.
Tiedje
,
Superlattices Microstruct.
37
,
394
(
2005
).
13.
S.
Tixier
,
M.
Adamcyk
,
T.
Tiedje
,
S.
Francoeur
,
A.
Mascarenhas
,
P.
Wei
, and
F.
Schiettekatte
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
82
,
2245
(
2003
).
14.
T. C.
Damen
,
S. P. S.
Porto
, and
B.
Tell
,
Phys. Rev.
142
,
570
(
1966
).
15.
D. E.
Aspnes
and
A. A.
Studna
,
Phys. Rev. B
27
,
985
(
1983
).
16.
J.
Ibáñez
,
R.
Kudrawiec
,
J.
Misiewicz
,
M.
Schmidbauer
,
M.
Henini
and
M.
Hopkinson
,
J. Appl. Phys.
100
,
093522
(
2006
).
17.
S.
O'Hagan
and
M.
Missous
,
J. Appl. Phys.
82
,
2400
(
1997
).
18.
J.
Daeubler
,
M.
Glunk
,
W.
Schoch
,
W.
Limmer
, and
R.
Sauer
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
88
,
051904
(
2006
).
19.
A.
Mascarenhas
and
M. J.
Seong
,
Semicond. Sci. Technol.
17
,
823
(
2002
).
20.
A. M.
Mintairov
,
P. A.
Blagnov
,
V. G.
Melehin
,
N. N.
Faleev
,
J. L.
Merz
,
Y.
Qiu
,
S. A.
Nikishin
, and
H.
Temkin
,
Phys. Rev. B
56
,
15836
(
1997
).
21.
M. J.
Seong
,
A.
Mascarenhas
, and
J. F.
Geisz
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
79
,
1297
(
2001
).
22.
J.
Ibáñez
,
E.
Alarcón-Lladó
,
R.
Cuscó
,
L.
Artús
, and
M.
Hopkinson
,
J. Appl. Phys.
102
,
013502
(
2007
).
23.
F.
Cerdeira
,
C. J.
Buchenauer
,
F. H.
Pollak
, and
M.
Cardona
,
Phys. Rev. B
5
,
580
(
1972
).
24.
C. K.
Inoki
,
V.
Lemos
,
F.
Cerdeira
, and
C.
Vásquez-López
,
J. Appl. Phys.
73
,
3266
(
1993
).
25.
G.
Armelles
,
M. J.
Sanjuán
,
L.
González
, and
Y.
González
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
68
,
1805
(
1996
).
26.
D.
Serries
,
M.
Peter
,
N.
Herres
,
K.
Winkler
, and
J.
Wagner
,
J. Appl. Phys.
87
,
8522
(
2000
).
27.
S.
Adachi
,
GaAs and Related Materials: Bulk Semiconducting and Superlattice Properties
(
John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
,
1994
), p.
103
.
28.
I. F.
Chang
and
S. S.
Mitra
,
Adv. Phys.
20
,
359
(
1971
).
29.
T.
Prokofyeva
,
T.
Sauncy
,
M.
Seon
,
M.
Holtz
,
Y.
Qiu
,
S.
Nikishin
, and
H.
Temkin
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
73
,
1409
(
1998
).
30.
H.
Richter
,
Z. P.
Wang
, and
L.
Ley
,
Appl. Solid State Commun.
39
,
625
(
1981
).
31.
K. K.
Tiong
,
P. M.
Amirtharaj
,
F. H.
Pollak
, and
D. E.
Aspnes
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
44
,
122
(
1984
).
32.
X.
Li
,
W. I.
Wang
,
A. Y.
Cho
, and
D. L.
Sivco
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B
11
,
912
(
1993
).
You do not currently have access to this content.