Inverted bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells have been fabricated applying non-metal doped TiO2 as electron extraction buffer layers. Spin-coated films from nitrogen, sulphur, and iodine doped TiO2 nanoparticles dispersed in dimethyl sulphoxide showed comparable roughness and uniformity as those from the pure TiO2 nanoparticles. The highest power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.67% was obtained for N-doped TiO2, whereas in the case of pure TiO2, PCE was around 1%. The highest short circuit current density (Jsc = 10.66 mA cm−2) was achieved for I-doped TiO2. Moreover, it was observed that devices with doped TiO2 exhibit better stability under constant illumination comparing to the control devices with pure TiO2.

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