The blue-green photoluminescence emitted by pure and electron-doped strontium titanate under intense pulsed near-ultraviolet excitation is studied experimentally as a function of excitation intensity and temperature. Both emission spectra and time-resolved decays of the emission are measured and analyzed in the framework of simple phenomenological models. We find an interesting blue-to-green transition occurring for increasing temperatures in pure samples, which is absent in doped materials. The luminescence yield and decay rate measured as a function of temperature can be modeled well as standard activated behaviors. The leading electron-hole recombination process taking place in the initial decay is established to be second order, or bimolecular, in contrast to recent reports favoring a third-order interpretation as an Auger process. The temporal decay of the luminescence can be described well by a model based on two interacting populations of excitations, respectively identified with interacting defect-trapped (possibly forming excitons) and mobile charges. Finally, from the measured doping and sample dependence of the luminescence yield, we conclude that the radiative centers responsible for the luminescence are probably intrinsic structural defects other than bulk oxygen vacancies.

1.
A.
Savoia
,
D.
Paparo
,
P.
Perna
,
Z.
Ristic
,
M.
Salluzzo
,
F.
Miletto Granozio
,
U.
Scotti di Uccio
,
C.
Richter
,
S.
Thiel
,
J.
Mannhart
, and
L.
Marrucci
,
Phys. Rev. B
80
,
075110
(
2009
).
2.
M.
Huijben
,
A.
Brinkman
,
G.
Koster
,
G.
Rijnders
,
H.
Hilgenkamp
, and
D. H. A.
Blank
,
Adv. Mater.
21
,
1665
(
2009
).
3.
K.
van Benthem
,
C.
Elsässer
, and
R. H.
French
,
J. Appl. Phys.
90
,
6156
(
2001
).
4.
M.
Capizzi
and
A.
Frova
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
25
,
1298
(
1970
).
5.
H. P. R.
Frederikse
and
W. R.
Hosler
,
Phys. Rev.
161
,
822
(
1967
).
6.
D.
Kéroack
,
Y.
Lépine
, and
J. L.
Brebner
,
J. Phys. C
17
,
833
(
1984
).
7.
D. M.
Eagles
,
M.
Georgiev
, and
P. C.
Petrova
,
Phys. Rev. B
54
,
22
(
1996
).
8.
J. L. M.
van Mechelen
,
D.
van der Marel
,
C.
Grimaldi
,
A. B.
Kuzmenko
,
N. P.
Armitage
,
N.
Reyren
,
H.
Hagemann
, and
I. I.
Mazin
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
100
,
226403
(
2008
).
9.
Y.
Ishida
,
R.
Eguchi
,
M.
Matsunami
,
K.
Horiba
,
M.
Taguchi
,
A.
Chainani
,
Y.
Senba
,
H.
Ohashi
,
H.
Ohta
, and
S.
Shin
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
100
,
056401
(
2008
).
10.
C.
Itoh
,
M.
Sasabe
,
H.
Kida
, and
K. -i.
Kan’no
,
J. Lumin.
112
,
263
(
2005
).
11.
A.
Stashans
,
Mater. Chem. Phys.
68
,
124
(
2001
).
12.
14.
M.
Aguilar
and
F.
Agullo-Lopez
,
J. Appl. Phys.
53
,
9009
(
1982
).
15.
R.
Leonelli
and
J. L.
Brebner
,
Phys. Rev. B
33
,
8649
(
1986
).
16.
T.
Hasegawa
,
M.
Shirai
, and
K.
Tanaka
,
J. Lumin.
87–89
,
1217
(
2000
).
17.
M.
Deguchi
,
N.
Nakajima
,
K.
Kawakami
,
N.
Ishimatsu
,
H.
Maruyama
,
C.
Moriyoshi
,
Y.
Kuroiwa
,
S.
Nozawa
,
K.
Ishiji
, and
T.
Iwazumi
,
Phys. Rev. B
78
,
073103
(
2008
).
18.
Y.
Qiu
,
Y. -J.
Jiang
,
G. -P.
Tong
, and
J. -F.
Zhang
,
Phys. Lett. A
372
,
2920
(
2008
).
19.
L. M.
Prócel
,
F.
Tipán
, and
A.
Stashans
,
Int. J. Quantum Chem.
91
,
586
(
2003
).
20.
R. I.
Eglitis
,
E. A.
Kotomin
,
G.
Borstel
,
S. E.
Kapphan
, and
V. S.
Vikhnin
,
Comput. Mater. Sci.
27
,
81
(
2003
).
21.
S.
Mochizuki
,
F.
Fujishiro
, and
S.
Minami
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
17
,
923
(
2005
).
22.
S.
Mochizuki
,
F.
Fujishiro
,
K.
Ishiwata
, and
K.
Shibata
,
Physica B
376–377
,
816
(
2006
).
23.
D.
Kan
,
T.
Terashima
,
R.
Kanda
,
A.
Masuno
,
K.
Tanaka
,
S.
Chu
,
H.
Kan
,
A.
Ishizumi
,
Y.
Kanemitsu
,
Y.
Shimakawa
, and
M.
Takano
,
Nature Mater.
4
,
816
(
2005
).
24.
D.
Kan
,
R.
Kanda
,
Y.
Kanemitsu
,
Y.
Shimakawa
,
M.
Takano
,
T.
Terashima
, and
A.
Ishizumi
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
88
,
191916
(
2006
).
25.
L.
Grigorjeva
,
D.
Millers
,
V.
Trepakov
, and
S.
Kapphan
,
Ferroelectrics
304
,
117
(
2004
).
26.
J.
Zhang
,
S.
Walsh
,
C.
Brookds
,
D. G.
Schlom
, and
L. J.
Brillson
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B
26
,
1466
(
2008
).
27.
Z. -h.
Li
,
H. -t.
Sun
,
Z. -q.
Xie
,
Y. -y.
Zhao
, and
M.
Lu
,
Nanotechnology
18
,
165703
(
2007
).
28.
A.
Rubano
,
D.
Paparo
,
F.
Miletto
,
U.
Scotti di Uccio
, and
L.
Marrucci
,
Phys. Rev. B
76
,
125115
(
2007
).
29.
A.
Rubano
,
D.
Paparo
,
M.
Radović
,
A.
Sambri
,
F.
Miletto Granozio
,
U.
Scotti Di Uccio
, and
L.
Marrucci
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
92
,
021102
(
2008
).
30.
Y.
Yamada
,
H.
Yasuda
,
T.
Tayagaki
, and
Y.
Kanemitsu
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
102
,
247401
(
2009
).
31.
H.
Yasuda
and
Y.
Kanemitsu
,
Phys. Rev. B
77
,
193202
(
2008
).
32.
L. -l.
Zhang
,
P.
Han
,
K. -j.
Jin
,
L.
Liao
,
C. -l.
Hu
, and
H. -b.
Lu
,
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
42
,
125109
(
2009
).
33.
K. W.
Blazey
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
27
,
146
(
1971
).
34.
H. J.
Zarrabi
,
W. B.
Wang
, and
R. R.
Alfano
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
46
,
513
(
1985
).
35.
P. T.
Landsberg
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
50
,
745
(
1987
).
36.
J.
Linnros
,
J. Appl. Phys.
84
,
275
(
1998
).
37.
N. F.
Massé
,
A. R.
Adams
, and
S. J.
Sweeney
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
90
,
161113
(
2007
).
38.
G. F. J.
Garlick
,
Rep. Prog. Phys.
30
,
491
(
1967
).
39.
H. Y.
Hwang
,
Nature Mater.
4
,
803
(
2005
).
40.
K.
Szot
,
W.
Speier
,
G.
Bihlmayer
, and
R.
Waser
,
Nature Mater.
5
,
312
(
2006
).
41.
V. M.
Longo
,
A. T.
de Figueiredo
,
S.
de Lázaro
,
M. F.
Gurgel
,
M. G. S.
Costa
,
C. O.
Paiva-Santos
,
J. A.
Varela
,
E.
Longo
,
V. R.
Mastelaro
,
F. S.
DE Vicente
,
A. C.
Hernandes
, and
R. W. A.
Franco
,
J. Appl. Phys.
104
,
023515
(
2008
).
42.
W. F.
Zhang
,
Z.
Yin
, and
M. S.
Zhang
,
Appl. Phys. A: Mater. Sci. Process.
70
,
93
(
2000
).
43.
M.
Kareev
,
S.
Prosandeev
,
J.
Liu
,
C.
Gan
,
A.
Kareev
,
J. W.
Freeland
,
M.
Xiao
, and
J.
Chakhalian
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
93
,
061909
(
2008
).
You do not currently have access to this content.