The effect of annealing in an ultrahigh vacuum on the chemical structure of diamondlike carbon (DLC) was investigated using photoelectron spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, electrical resistivity, and micro-Raman spectroscopy measurements. The line shapes of the C1s photoelectron spectra depended on annealing temperature. The relative intensities of four chemical components in the spectra were quantitatively evaluated: sp3 carbon with carbon-carbon bonds (C–C sp3 carbon), sp2 carbon with carbon-carbon bonds (C–C sp2 carbon), sp2 carbon with hydrogen-carbon bonds (H–C sp2 carbon), and sp3 carbon with hydrogen-carbon bonds (H–C sp3 carbon). The variation of the ratio of the components demonstrated that hydrogen in DLC is emitted to the outside in between 450 and 600°C, and the remaining DLC is graphized above 600°C. The increase in the asymmetry of the C1s spectra and the decrease in the electrical resistivity of the DLC film with annealing temperature agree with the picture that the H–C bonds in DLC produces large free spaces in the structure, which inhibit conductive routes and lead to high electrical resistivity.

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