High quality on-chip microwave resonators have recently found prominent new applications in quantum optics and quantum information processing experiments with superconducting electronic circuits, a field now known as circuit quantum electrodynamics (QED). They are also used as single photon detectors and parametric amplifiers. Here we analyze the physical properties of coplanar waveguide resonators and their relation to the materials properties for use in circuit QED. We have designed and fabricated resonators with fundamental frequencies from 2 to 9 GHz and quality factors ranging from a few hundreds to a several hundred thousands controlled by appropriately designed input and output coupling capacitors. The microwave transmission spectra measured at temperatures of 20 mK are shown to be in good agreement with theoretical lumped element and distributed element transmission matrix models. In particular, the experimentally determined resonance frequencies, quality factors, and insertion losses are fully and consistently explained by the two models for all measured devices. The high level of control and flexibility in design renders these resonators ideal for storing and manipulating quantum electromagnetic fields in integrated superconducting electronic circuits.
Coplanar waveguide resonators for circuit quantum electrodynamics
M. Göppl, A. Fragner, M. Baur, R. Bianchetti, S. Filipp, J. M. Fink, P. J. Leek, G. Puebla, L. Steffen, A. Wallraff; Coplanar waveguide resonators for circuit quantum electrodynamics. J. Appl. Phys. 1 December 2008; 104 (11): 113904. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3010859
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