We report x-ray luminescence from LaF3:Ce3+,Tb3+ and LaF3:Tb3+ water-soluble nanoparticles. The x-ray luminescence is dominated by emission from Tb3+ ions, similar to photoluminescence spectra of the nanoparticle aqueous solutions and spectra from nanoparticle powders precipitated from the aqueous samples. Coating the nanoparticles with an insulating inorganic LaF3 or organic H2N(CH2)10COOH layer can enhance the x-ray luminescence from the aqueous nanoparticles. This enhancement is most likely due to the decreased energy loss due to the particle-solvent interactions.

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