Metal anodes are considered promising candidates for next-generation rechargeable batteries owing to their high theoretical specific capacities. However, practical applications are limited by safety concerns and poor electrochemical performance caused by unstable solid electrolyte interphase (SEI) and uncontrolled metal deposition at the metal anode/electrolyte interface. An in-depth understanding of the interfacial reactions is of vital significance for the development of metal anode-based batteries. In situ electrochemical atomic force microscopy (EC-AFM) enabling high spatial resolution imaging and multifunctional detection is widely used to monitor electrode/electrolyte interfaces in working batteries. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the application of in situ EC-AFM for metal anode processes, including SEI formation and the deposition/dissolution processes of metallic lithium, magnesium, and zinc in metal anode-based batteries, which are conducive to the optimization of metal anodes in energy storage batteries.

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