Numerical simulations with periodic boundary conditions are widely used in cosmology. These have a multiply connected topology known as a three‐torus. Such nontrivial topologies for the actual universe may have arisen in the Big Bang. A two‐dimensional numerical model with a twisted topology, sometimes a Klein bottle, is shown as well as the fact that local properties of the model are not dependent on topology.

This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.