We investigated the influence of the construction of cascade dams and reservoirs on the predictability and complexity of the streamflow of the São Francisco River, Brazil, by using complexity entropy causality plane (CECP) in its standard and weighted form. We analyzed daily streamflow time series recorded in three fluviometric stations: São Francisco (upstream of cascade dams), Juazeiro (downstream of Sobradinho dam), and Pão de Açúcar station (downstream of Sobradinho and Xingó dams). By comparing the values of CECP information quantifiers (permutation entropy and statistical complexity) for the periods before and after the construction of Sobradinho (1979) and Xingó (1994) dams, we found that the reservoirs’ operations changed the temporal variability of streamflow series toward the less predictable regime as indicated by higher entropy (lower complexity) values. Weighted CECP provides some finer details in the predictability of streamflow due to the inclusion of amplitude information in the probability distribution of ordinal patterns. The time evolution of streamflow predictability was analyzed by applying CECP in 2 year sliding windows that revealed the influence of the Paulo Alfonso complex (located between Sobradinho and Xingó dams), construction of which started in the 1950s and was identified through the increased streamflow entropy in the downstream Pão de Açúcar station. The other streamflow alteration unrelated to the construction of the two largest dams was identified in the upstream unimpacted São Francisco station, as an increase in the entropy around 1960s, indicating that some natural factors could also play a role in the decreased predictability of streamflow dynamics.
Hydrological changes caused by the construction of dams and reservoirs: The CECP analysis
Note: This paper is part of the Focus Issue on Ordinal Methods: Concepts, Applications, New Developments and Challenges.
Ikaro Daniel de Carvalho Barreto, Tatijana Stosic, Rômulo Simões Cezar Menezes, Antonio Samuel Alves da Silva, Osvaldo A. Rosso, Borko Stosic; Hydrological changes caused by the construction of dams and reservoirs: The CECP analysis. Chaos 1 February 2023; 33 (2): 023115. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0135352
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