Human stick balancing is investigated in terms of reaction time delay and sensory dead zones for position and velocity perception using a special combination of delayed state feedback and mismatched predictor feedback as a control model. The corresponding mathematical model is a delay-differential equation with event-driven switching in the control action. Due to the sensory dead zones, initial conditions of the actual state cannot always be provided for an internal-model-based prediction, which indicates that (1) perfect prediction is not possible and (2) the delay in the switching condition cannot be compensated. The imperfection of the predictor is described by the delay mismatch, which is treated as a lumped parameter that creates a transition between perfect predictor feedback (zero delay mismatch) and delayed state feedback (mismatch equal to switching delay). The maximum admissible switching delay (critical delay) is determined numerically based on a practical stabilizability concept. This critical delay is compared to a realistic reference value of 230 ms in order to assess the possible regions of the threshold values for position and velocity perception. The ratio of the angular position and angular velocity for 44 successful balancing trials by 8 human subjects was used to validate the numerical results. Comparison of actual human stick balancing data and numerical simulations based on the mismatched predictor feedback model provided a plausible range of parameters: position detection threshold 1°, velocity detection threshold between 4.24 and 9.35°/s, and delay mismatch around 100–150 ms.
Predictor feedback models for stick balancing with delay mismatch and sensory dead zones
Note: This article is part of the Focus Issue, Non-smooth Dynamics.
Dalma J. Nagy, Tamás Insperger; Predictor feedback models for stick balancing with delay mismatch and sensory dead zones. Chaos 1 May 2022; 32 (5): 053108. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0087019
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