We review generalized fluctuation-dissipation relations, which are valid under general conditions even in “nonstandard systems,” e.g., out of equilibrium and/or without a Hamiltonian structure. The response functions can be expressed in terms of suitable correlation functions computed in the unperturbed dynamics. In these relations, typically, one has nontrivial contributions due to the form of the stationary probability distribution; such terms take into account the interaction among the relevant degrees of freedom in the system. We illustrate the general formalism with some examples in nonstandard cases, including driven granular media, systems with a multiscale structure, active matter, and systems showing anomalous diffusion.
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Research Article| August 30 2019
On the fluctuation-dissipation relation in non-equilibrium and non-Hamiltonian systems
Special Collection: Linear Response Theory: Potentials and Limits
A. Sarracino, A. Vulpiani; On the fluctuation-dissipation relation in non-equilibrium and non-Hamiltonian systems. Chaos 1 August 2019; 29 (8): 083132. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5110262
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