Personalized physics-based flow models are becoming increasingly important in cardiovascular medicine. They are a powerful complement to traditional methods of clinical decision-making and offer a wealth of physiological information beyond conventional anatomic viewing using medical imaging data. These models have been used to identify key hemodynamic biomarkers, such as pressure gradient and wall shear stress, which are associated with determining the functional severity of cardiovascular diseases. Importantly, simulation-driven diagnostics can help researchers understand the complex interplay between geometric and fluid dynamic parameters, which can ultimately improve patient outcomes and treatment planning. The possibility to compute and predict diagnostic variables and hemodynamics biomarkers can therefore play a pivotal role in reducing adverse treatment outcomes and accelerate development of novel strategies for cardiovascular disease management.

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