A multi-functional microfluidic platform was fabricated to demonstrate the feasibility of on-chip electroporation integrated with dielectrophoresis (DEP) and alternating-current-electro-osmosis (ACEO) assisted cell/particle manipulation. A spatial gradient of electroporation parameters was generated within a microchamber array and validated using normal human dermal fibroblast (NHDF) cells and red fluorescent protein-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (RFP-HUVECs) with various fluorescent indicators. The edge of the bottom electrode, coinciding with the microchamber entrance, may act as an on-demand gate, functioning under either positive or negative DEP. In addition, at sufficiently low activation frequencies, ACEO vortices can complement the DEP to contribute to a rapid trapping/alignment of particles. As such, results clearly indicate that the microfluidic platform has the potential to achieve high-throughput screening for electroporation with spatial control and uniformity, assisted by DEP and ACEO manipulation/trapping of particles/cells into individual microchambers.

1.
E.
Neumann
,
A. E.
Sowers
, and
C. A.
Jordan
,
Electroporation and Electrofusion in Cell Biology
(
Springer
,
1989
).
2.
D. C.
Chang
,
J. A.
Saunders
,
B. M.
Chassy
, and
A. E.
Sowers
, in
Guide Electroporation Electrofusion
, edited by
D. C.
Chang
,
B. M.
Chassy
,
J. A.
Saunders
, and
A. E.
Sowers
(
Academic Press
,
San Diego
,
1992
), pp.
1
6
.
3.
J. C.
Weaver
and
Y. A.
Chizmadzhev
,
Bioelectrochem. Bioenergy
41
,
135
(
1996
).
4.
W. G.
Lee
,
U.
Demirci
, and
A.
Khademhosseini
,
Integr. Biol.
1
,
242
(
2009
).
5.
T.
Geng
and
C.
Lu
,
Lab Chip
13
,
3803
(
2013
).
6.
L. H.
Reid
and
O.
Smithies
, in
Guide Electroporation Electrofusion
, edited by
D. C.
Chang
,
B. M.
Chassy
,
J. A.
Saunders
, and
A. E.
Sowers
(
Academic Press
,
San Diego
,
1992
), pp.
209
225
.
7.
H.
Potter
and
S. W. F.
Cooke
, in
Guide Electroporation Electrofusion
, edited by
D. C.
Chang
,
B. M.
Chassy
,
J. A.
Saunders
, and
A. E.
Sowers
(
Academic Press
,
San Diego
,
1992
), pp.
201
208
.
8.
S.-O.
Choi
,
Y.-C.
Kim
,
J. W.
Lee
,
J.-H.
Park
,
M. R.
Prausnitz
, and
M. G.
Allen
,
Small
8
,
1081
(
2012
).
9.
L.
Graziadei
,
P.
Burfeind
, and
D.
Bar-Sagi
,
Anal. Biochem.
194
,
198
(
1991
).
10.
S.-W.
Hui
, in
Electroporation Protocols
, edited by
S.
Li
(
Humana Press
,
2008)
, pp.
91
107
.
11.
T. Y.
Tsong
, in
Guide Electroporation Electrofusion
, edited by
D. C.
Chang
,
B. M.
Chassy
,
J. A.
Saunders
, and
A. E.
Sowers
(
Academic Press
,
San Diego
,
1992
), pp.
47
61
.
12.
V.
Ganeva
,
B.
Galutzov
, and
J.
Teissié
,
Anal. Biochem.
315
,
77
(
2003
).
13.
B.
Al-Sakere
,
F.
Andre
,
C.
Bernat
,
E.
Connault
,
P.
Opolon
,
R. V.
Davalos
,
B.
Rubinsky
, and
L. M.
Mir
,
PLoS ONE
2
,
e1135
(
2007
).
14.
Y.
Xu
,
H.
Yao
,
L.
Wang
,
W.
Xing
, and
J.
Cheng
,
Lab Chip
11
,
2417
(
2011
).
15.
J.
Kim
,
I.
Hwang
,
D.
Britain
,
T. D.
Chung
,
Y.
Sun
, and
D.-H.
Kim
,
Lab Chip
11
,
3941
(
2011
).
16.
T.
Geng
,
N.
Bao
,
N.
Sriranganathanw
,
L.
Li
, and
C.
Lu
,
Anal. Chem.
84
,
9632
(
2012
).
17.
M.
Shahini
and
J. T. W.
Yeow
,
Lab Chip
13
,
2585
(
2013
).
18.
N.
Bao
,
G. C.
Kodippili
,
K. M.
Giger
,
V. M.
Fowler
,
P. S.
Low
, and
C.
Lu
,
Lab Chip
11
,
3053
(
2011
).
19.
S.-C.
Chen
,
T. S.
Santra
,
C.-J.
Chang
,
T.-J.
Chen
,
P.-C.
Wang
, and
F.-G.
Tseng
,
Biomed. Microdevices
14
,
811
(
2012
).
20.
S.
Homhuan
,
B.
Zhang
,
F.-S.
Sheu
,
A. A.
Bettiol
, and
F.
Watt
,
Biomed. Microdevices
14
,
533
(
2012
).
21.
M.
Khine
,
C.
Ionescu-Zanetti
,
A.
Blatz
,
L.-P.
Wang
, and
L. P.
Lee
,
Lab Chip
7
,
457
(
2007
).
22.
T. S.
Santra
and
F. G.
Tseng
,
Micromachines
4
,
333
(
2013
).
23.
A.
Valero
,
J. N.
Post
,
J. W.
van Nieuwkasteele
,
P. M.
ter Braak
,
W.
Kruijer
, and
A.
van den Berg
,
Lab Chip
8
,
62
(
2008
).
24.
M.
Wang
,
O.
Orwar
,
J.
Olofsson
, and
S. G.
Weber
,
Anal. Bioanal. Chem.
397
,
3235
(
2010
).
25.
C.-H.
Wang
,
Y.-H.
Lee
,
H.-T.
Kuo
,
W.-F.
Liang
,
W.-J.
Li
, and
G.-B.
Lee
,
Lab Chip
14
,
592
(
2014
).
26.
N.
Ikeda
,
N.
Tanaka
,
Y.
Yanagida
, and
T.
Hatsuzawa
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1
46
,
6410
(
2007
).
27.
T.
Jain
,
A.
Papas
,
A.
Jadhav
,
R.
McBride
, and
E.
Saez
,
Lab Chip
12
,
939
(
2012
).
28.
S. H.
Kim
,
T.
Yamamoto
,
D.
Fourmy
, and
T.
Fujii
,
Small
7
,
3239
(
2011
).
29.
Z.
Fei
,
X.
Hu
,
H.
Choi
,
S.
Wang
,
D.
Farson
, and
L. J.
Lee
,
Anal. Chem.
82
,
353
(
2010
).
30.
H.-Y.
Wang
and
C.
Lu
,
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
100
,
579
(
2008
).
31.
S.
Wang
,
X.
Zhang
,
W.
Wang
, and
L. J.
Lee
,
Anal. Chem.
81
,
4414
(
2009
).
32.
S.
Wang
,
X.
Zhang
,
B.
Yu
,
R. J.
Lee
, and
L. J.
Lee
,
Biosens. Bioelectron.
26
,
778
(
2010
).
33.
S.
Wang
and
L. J.
Lee
,
Biomicrofluidics
7
,
011301
(
2013
).
34.
H.-C.
Chang
and
G.
Yossifon
,
Biomicrofluidics
3
,
012001
(
2009
).
35.
J.
Čemažar
and
T.
Kotnik
,
Electrophoresis
33
,
2867
(
2012
).
36.
A. D.
Hargis
,
J. P.
Alarie
, and
J. M.
Ramsey
,
Electrophoresis
32
,
3172
(
2011
).
37.
J. K.
Valley
,
S.
Neale
,
H.-Y.
Hsu
,
A. T.
Ohta
,
A.
Jamshidi
, and
M. C.
Wu
,
Lab Chip
9
,
1714
(
2009
).
38.
C.
Ionescu-Zanetti
,
A.
Blatz
, and
M.
Khine
,
Biomed. Microdevices
10
,
113
(
2008
).
39.
J.
Wang
,
Y.
Zhan
,
V. M.
Ugaz
, and
C.
Lu
,
Lab Chip
10
,
2057
(
2010
).
40.
J.
Voldman
,
Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng.
8
,
425
(
2006
).
41.
A.
Ramos
,
A.
Gonzalez
,
A.
Castellanos
,
N. G.
Green
, and
H.
Morgan
,
Phys. Rev. E
67
,
056302
(
2003
).
42.
N. G.
Green
,
A.
Ramos
,
A.
González
,
H.
Morgan
, and
A.
Castellanos
,
Phys. Rev. E
61
,
4011
(
2000
).
43.
J.
Oh
,
R.
Hart
,
J.
Capurro
, and
H. M.
Noh
,
Lab Chip
9
,
62
(
2009
).
44.
S.
Park
,
P. A. L.
Wijethunga
,
H.
Moon
, and
B.
Han
,
Lab Chip
11
,
2212
(
2011
).
45.
L.
Rozitsky
,
A.
Fine
,
D.
Dado
,
S.
Nussbaum-Ben-Shaul
,
S.
Levenberg
, and
G.
Yossifon
,
Biomed. Microdevices
15
,
859
(
2013
).
46.
A.
Castellanos
,
A.
Ramos
,
A.
González
,
N. G.
Green
, and
H.
Morgan
,
J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys.
36
,
2584
(
2003
).
47.
H.
Lu
,
M. A.
Schmidt
, and
K. F.
Jensen
,
Lab Chip
5
,
23
(
2005
).
48.
M.-J.
Kim
,
T.
Kim
, and
Y.-H.
Cho
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
101
,
223705
(
2012
).
49.
T.
Müller
,
G.
Gradl
,
S.
Howitz
,
S.
Shirley
,
T.
Schnelle
, and
G.
Fuhr
,
Biosens. Bioelectron.
14
,
247
(
1999
).
50.
K.
Eyer
,
P.
Kuhn
,
C.
Hanke
, and
P. S.
Dittrich
,
Lab Chip
12
,
765
(
2012
).
You do not currently have access to this content.