Respiratory viral infections are leading causes of death worldwide. A number of human respiratory viruses circulate in all age groups and adapt to person-to-person transmission. It is vital to understand how these viruses infect the host and how the host responds to prevent infection and onset of disease. Although animal models have been widely used to study disease states, incisive arguments related to poor prediction of patient responses have led to the development of microfluidic organ-on-chip models, which aim to recapitulate organ-level physiology. Over the past decade, human lung chips have been shown to mimic many aspects of the lung function and its complex microenvironment. In this review, we address immunological responses to viral infections and elaborate on human lung airway and alveolus chips reported to model respiratory viral infections and therapeutic interventions. Advances in the field will expedite the development of therapeutics and vaccines for human welfare.

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