The effects of atomic-scale disorder and charge (de)localization hold significant importance, and they provide essential insights to unravel the role that strong and weak correlations play in condensed matter systems. In the case of perovskite oxide heterostructures, while disorders introduced via various external stimuli have strong influences over the (de)localization of interfacial two-dimensional (2D) electrons, these factors alone could not fully account for the system's charge dynamics where interfacial hybridization holds very strong influence. Here, we determine that the displaced 2D free electrons have been localized in the specific hybridized states of the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface. This experimental study combines both transport measurements and temperature-dependent x-ray absorption spectroscopy and suggests that the localization of 2D electrons can be induced via temperature reduction or ionic liquid gating. Furthermore, this localization effect is found to be applicable to both amorphous and crystalline interfacial systems. In particular, we demonstrate that interfacial hybridization plays a pivotal role in regulating the 2D electron localization effects. Our study resolves the location where the 2D electrons are localized not only does it highlight the importance of interfacial hybridization but it also opens a new avenue for device fabrication in amorphous film systems where charge localization can be done at much great ease as compared to epitaxial crystalline heterostructures.
Two-dimensional charge localization at the perovskite oxide interface
Chi Sin Tang, Shengwei Zeng, Caozheng Diao, Jing Wu, Shunfeng Chen, Mark B. H. Breese, Chuanbing Cai, Thirumalai Venkatesan, Ariando Ariando, Andrew T. S. Wee, Xinmao Yin; Two-dimensional charge localization at the perovskite oxide interface. Appl. Phys. Rev. 1 September 2022; 9 (3): 031405. https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0094500
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