In recent years, the role of optically sensitive nanomaterials has become powerful moieties in therapeutic techniques and has become particularly emphasized. Currently, by the extraordinary development of nanomaterials in different fields of medicine, they have found new applications. Phototherapy modalities, such as photothermal therapy (PTT) by toxic heat generation and photodynamic therapy (PDT) by reactive oxygen species, are known as promising phototherapeutic techniques, which can overcome the limitations of conventional protocols. Moreover, nanomaterial-based PDT and PTT match the simultaneous immune therapy and increase the immune system stimulation resulting from the denaturation of cancer cells. Nevertheless, nanomaterials should have sufficient biocompatibility and efficiency to meet PDT and PTT requirements as therapeutic agents. The present review focuses on the therapeutic potency of PDT, PTT, and also their combined modalities, which are known alternative protocols with minimal morbidity integrated into gold standard treatments such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy at tumor treatment and cancer-related infectious diseases. In addition, for deeper understanding, photoablation effects with emphasis on the nature, morphology, and size of photosensitive nanomaterials in PDT and PTT were studied. Finally, transportation techniques and moieties needed as carriers of photosensitizers and photothermal therapy agents to hard-accessed regions, for example, cancerous regions, were investigated.

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