Skeletal muscle precursor cells (MPCs) are considered key candidates for cell therapy in the treatment of skeletal muscle dysfunction due to injury, disease, or aging. However, expansion of a sufficient number of functional skeletal muscle cells in vitro from a small tissue biopsy has been challenging due to changes in the phenotypic expression of these cells under nonnatural microenvironmental or traditional culture conditions. This review provides an overview of recent progress in the design and biofabrication of advanced tissue-specific extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins for use in the enhancement of expansion and differentiation of MPCs for cell therapy and 3D bioprinting. We start with a brief introduction about the existing progress, drawbacks, and emerging challenges in the culture and maintenance of long term primary human MPCs for cell therapy. With regard to MPC proliferation, elongation, fusion, and differentiation into mature myofibers, we systematically summarize the benefits and limitations of recent progress. The importance of tissue-specific ECM in skeletal muscle regeneration is discussed, in particular, the mechanisms, rationale, strategy, and methodologies for using tissue-specific ECM proteins for myogenesis in 2D and 3D culture environments. Furthermore, perspectives on the challenges in developing tissue-specific ECM proteins for cell therapy using human MPCs are described. Finally, we propose potential strategies for overcoming the challenges in the development of advanced tissue-specific ECM proteins for promoting cell therapy with human skeletal muscle cells.
Biofabrication of tissue-specific extracellular matrix proteins to enhance the expansion and differentiation of skeletal muscle progenitor cells
Longkun Li, Guihua Liu, Peter Timashev, Xiuzhi Susan Sun, Tracy Criswell, Anthony Atala, Yuanyuan Zhang; Biofabrication of tissue-specific extracellular matrix proteins to enhance the expansion and differentiation of skeletal muscle progenitor cells. Appl. Phys. Rev. 1 June 2019; 6 (2): 021309. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.5088726
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