The monolithically integrated self-driven photoelectric detector (PD) with the light-emitting diode (LED) epitaxial structure completely relies on the built-in electric field in the multi-quantum wells region to separate the photogenerated carriers. Here, we propose a novel superlattices–electron barrier layer structure to expand the potential field region and enhance the detection capability of the integrated PD. The PD exhibits a record-breaking photo-to-dark current ratio of 5.14 × 107, responsivity of 110.3 A/W, and specific detectivity of 2.2 × 1013 Jones at 0 V bias, respectively. A clear open-eyed diagram of the monolithically integrated chip, including the PD, LED, and waveguide, is realized under a high-speed communication rate of 150 Mbps. The obtained transient response (rise/decay) time of 2.16/2.28 ns also illustrates the outstanding transient response capability of the integrated chip. The on-chip optical communication system is built to achieve the practical video signals transmission application, which is a formidable contender for the core module of future large-scale photonic integrated circuits.

In virtue of rapid developments, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have spread to broad application fields, including lighting, display, communication, sensing, and biochemical detection.1–6 In addition, driven by the development of photoelectric integration technology, the application of LEDs has been extended to on-chip integration aspects.7–10 Interestingly, owing to their outstanding ability to realize luminescence and detection simultaneously, multiple quantum-wells (MQWs) diodes can not only function as an LED to generate light but also function as a photoelectric detector (PD) to detect light.11–13 Consequently, as the kernel module of on-chip optical information transmission, the photonic chips based on the MQWs structure that integrate optical emission, transmission, and reception have attracted intense interest.14,15 Especially, the ultraviolet-C (UVC) light dominated by the transverse magnetic (TM) polarization mode is preferred for on-chip optical communication due to its advantages in lateral on-chip optical transmission.16 The weak UVC light on the Earth’s surface provides a natural environment almost without background light noise for the application of UVC photonic integrated chips.17 The on-chip optical information transmission method could be revolutionized through this innovative monolithically integrated method.18–20 Undoubtedly, the research of the on-chip UVC optical communication system is of great significance to tremendously promote the development of on-chip photonic integration technology. Meanwhile, this technology also provides a new technical path for achieving fully large-area photonic integration circuits (PIC) technology on the horizon.21–23 

Despite the gradual maturity of the growth method and device fabrication technology, MQWs structure diodes based on the III-V nitride materials have been widely utilized to realize the on-chip optical communication.24–27 Unfortunately, the MQWs structure epilayer only focuses on how to improve the luminous efficiency, but ignores the optimization of the integrated PD performance at present. Undoubtedly, the luminescence and detection of the MQWs epilayer are the opposite processes. In order to improve the whole on-chip communication capability of integrated chips, it is imperative to comprehensively consider the overall effect of the light-detection performance.28 Furthermore, photonic integrated chips with the basic function of on-chip optical communication are still concentrated in the visible light band at present. There are only few reports on photonic integrated chips for on-chip UV communication, especially in the deep UV scope.29 Recently, Li et al. have fabricated various sensors utilizing the visible integrated chips.30–33 Similarly, Wang et al. also presented the technology of on-chip duplex optical communication using the integrated chips.34,35 However, until now, experimental verification and reports about the complete on-chip optical communication information transmission links remain relatively explored.

In this work, we propose a structure design of extending the built-in electric field in the MQWs to enhance the response capability of integrated PDs. The whole communication efficiency of the integrated chip, including the LED, waveguide, and PD, is obviously improved due to the more intimate optical link. About two orders of magnitude improvement in the photo-to-dark-current ratio (PDCR) has been achieved for the self-driven PD by using novel superlattices-electron barrier layer (SLs-EBL) structure. Especially, a record-breaking on-chip UVC optical communication rate of 150 Mbps is realized, and the transient response time is on the order of nanoseconds. The practical on-chip UVC optical communication system for video transmission is built and demonstrated for the first time.

As shown in Fig. 1(a), the insets in the dashed circle show the physical mechanism of photons emission and detection, building a bridge for the intimate relation of the optical information in the same MQWs structure of the LED and the PD. The overlap between the emission and response spectra from the MQWs structure provides a rare opportunity for the on-chip optical information transmission. For the working integrated chip shown in the optical microscope image in Fig. 1(a), the one on the left is used as LED to emit light signals and that on the right is used as PD to detect light signals. The active region of the integrated LED and PD is both 400 × 140 µm2, and the waveguide fabricated on the n-AlGaN layer with the isosceles triangle structure is 600 µm long. First, the active regions are defined by the inductively coupled plasma reactive ion etching (ICP-RIE, speed: 40 Å/s) with an etching depth of 500 nm. Then, Ti/Al/Ni/Au (20/60/30/100 nm) multi-layers are evaporated by an electron beam evaporator (EBE) and lifted off to form the p-contact metal electrodes. Afterward, the electrodes are treated by rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 1000 °C for 30 s in N2 ambient. Similarly, Ni/Au (20/20 nm) multi-layers are deposited and lifted off to form the n-contact metal electrodes, followed by RTA at 700 °C for 1 min in an N2 atmosphere. Subsequently, the 2.5 µm waveguide is defined by photolithography and transferred into the n-AlGaN layer through ICP dry etching. Finally, an SiO2 passivation protective layer is deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and patterned by buffered oxide etch (BOE). For the conventional UVC MQWs structure, as shown in Fig. 2(b1), the Al composition fixation EBL is designed to inhibit the leakage of electrons36 nevertheless, which is extremely unfavorable for the rapid carrier separation during the detection. Therefore, EBL is designed as a short-period SLs structure to optimize the detection capability of the epitaxial wafer shown in Fig. 1(b2). The conventional UVC LED structure consists of a 2.5 μm thick AlN, 20-period AlN/Al0.6Ga0.4N SLs, 2.0 μm n-Al0.67Ga0.33N layer, 1.3 μm n-Al0.55Ga0.45N layer, five period Al0.50Ga0.50N/Al0.37Ga0.63N MQWs, 25 nm p-Al0.7Ga0.3N EBL, about 20 nm graded p-AlGaN hole injection layer, and 2 nm p-Al0.2Ga0.8N contact layer (CTL). Here, this conventional structure is named as sample 1 (S1), while the structure sample 2 (S2) is changed from the high-Al component EBL to five-period Al0.7Ga0.3N/Al0.5Ga0.5N SLs. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurement is used to confirm the differences between the two epitaxial structures. As shown in Figs. 1(c) and 1(d), the green shadow regions show different Al component distributions, where the epilayer S1 shows the uniform high-Al component EBL structure and the epilayer S2 shows the short period SLs structure. Atomic force microscope (AFM) is used to observe the surface topography of the epilayer, where the well-defined atomic terraced morphology can be seen on the p-AlGaN surface, with a root mean square (RMS) roughness of 0.46 nm in 5 × 5 μm2 area shown in Fig. 1(e). Simultaneously, the result of the x-ray diffraction (XRD) 2θ-ω scan clearly shows the satellite peaks and intense AlGaN (0002) peak from the MQWs in shown in Fig. 1(f). The coherent reflection from the smooth AlN and AlGaN layers is the origination of these peaks, indicating good periodicity and high quality of the UVC LED epitaxial structure.

FIG. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the layout for the monolithically integrated device. The insets in the dashed circle schematically depict the different mechanisms of the photons emission and photons detection using the same MQWs structure. Another illustration is an optical microscope image of the working integrated chip. Schematic diagrams of the structure of S1 (b1) and S2 (b2). The Al and Ga concentration ratio of S1 (c) and S2 (d) about 100 nm down from the surface. (e) AFM image of the UVC epilayer surface. (f) XRD 2θ-ω scan of the UVC epilayer structure.

FIG. 1.

(a) Schematic diagram of the layout for the monolithically integrated device. The insets in the dashed circle schematically depict the different mechanisms of the photons emission and photons detection using the same MQWs structure. Another illustration is an optical microscope image of the working integrated chip. Schematic diagrams of the structure of S1 (b1) and S2 (b2). The Al and Ga concentration ratio of S1 (c) and S2 (d) about 100 nm down from the surface. (e) AFM image of the UVC epilayer surface. (f) XRD 2θ-ω scan of the UVC epilayer structure.

Close modal
FIG. 2.

(a) Linear electrons concentration distribution in QWs regions of the epilayers S1 and S2. The simulated EL spectra of epilayer S1 (a) and epilayer S2 (b).The simulated energy band diagrams of the epilayers S1 (d) and S2 (e) without voltage bias. The enlarged pink shadow regions of epilayers S1 (f) and S2 (g). The electric field distribution of epilayers S1 (h) and S2 (i), where the yellow shadows are the EBL region in S1 and the SLs-EBL region in S2.

FIG. 2.

(a) Linear electrons concentration distribution in QWs regions of the epilayers S1 and S2. The simulated EL spectra of epilayer S1 (a) and epilayer S2 (b).The simulated energy band diagrams of the epilayers S1 (d) and S2 (e) without voltage bias. The enlarged pink shadow regions of epilayers S1 (f) and S2 (g). The electric field distribution of epilayers S1 (h) and S2 (i), where the yellow shadows are the EBL region in S1 and the SLs-EBL region in S2.

Close modal

APSYS simulation is used to reveal the theoretical mechanism of the effect of the SLs-EBL structure on the performance of integrated LED and PD. As shown in Fig. 2(a), the electron concentration in the final-QW of the SLs-EBL structure epilayer is lower than that of the conventional structure. Although the SLs-EBL structure can still retain the function of blocking electrons, its blocking degree is slightly inferior to the traditional high Al component EBL structure. The decrease in the electron blocking ability will reduce the number of carriers in radiative recombination, which will eventually affect the luminous efficiency to some extent, as shown in Figs. 2(b) and 2(c). The detection ability of the MQWs structure PD under the unbiased state depends on the built-in electric field to separate photogenerated carriers.18 The physical mechanism embodied in the self-driven phenomenon of the MQWs structure PD is schematically shown in Figs. 2(d) and 2(e). The complete carrier loop is formed by the photogenerated carrier through the drift and diffusion movements in different regions under the condition of no external driven voltage. The potential field could drive the photogenerated carriers to drift and separate into opposite directions. The enlarged pink shadow regions are shown in Figs. 2(f) and 2(g) to compare the discrepancy. The potential field throughout the EBL region is increased from 0.198 eV in the epilayer S1 to 1.083 eV in the epilayer S2, which is extremely advantageous for the rapid separation of photogenerated carriers. The electric field distribution in Figs. 2(h) and 2(i) also shows the obvious electric field difference between epilayer S1 and epilayer S2. For the conventional high Al component EBL structure in the epilayer S1, the electric field in the EBL region is a relative wreak compared to the optimized SLs-EBL structure of the epilayer S2. Furthermore, the lower SLs-EBL thickness will decrease the photogenerated carrier transit time, and thus, the integrated PD will be more sensitive to changes in incident light.

The epilayers S1 and S2 are used to fabricate monolithically integrated devices S1 and S2. The integrated devices simultaneously include the LED, waveguide, and PD. The electroluminescence (EL) spectra of LED S1 and LED S2 under variable currents from 5 to 20 mA are shown in Figs. 3(a1) and 3(a2). Obviously, the luminescence intensity of LED S2 is lower than that of LED S1, which is consistent with the above-mentioned simulation results. Furthermore, a slight blueshift is observed in S2 with SLs-EBL, caused by the change in stress inside the MQWs region. This phenomenon can also be observed in the photoluminescence (PL) spectra shown in Fig. 3(b). The SLs structure facilitates the release of stress in the adjacent MQWs, thereby alleviating the quantum confinement Stark effect to some extent, ultimately resulting in the slight blueshift in both the EL and PL spectra. In addition, the detection ability of the integrated PDs is also an essential aspect for the whole on-chip optical communication system. As shown in Figs. 3(c1) and 3(c2), PD S2 is more responsive to the illumination from the corresponding integrated LED compared to PD S1. Obviously, the separation of the dark current curve and photocurrent curve for the integrated device S2 is more pronounced, especially when the PDs are operated under 0 V bias. For the PD S1, the dark current measured under 0 V bias is within the range of 0.5–0.9 pA, rising to 20–80 nA when the LEDs are operated from 20 to 50 mA. In contrast, for the PD S2, the dark current measured under 0 V bias is within the range of 0.001–0.010 pA, rising to 30–120 nA when the LEDs are operated from 20 to 50 mA. As an essential property, the PDCR of PDs directly reflects the detection sensitivity, which is compared in Fig. 3(d). The PDCR under the self-driven state of the device S1 is ∼3.54 × 104, while it may reach ∼5.14 × 107 for device S2. The order of magnitude improvement confirms that the SLs-EBL design is beneficial to the overall performance improvement of integrated chips. To quantify the response ability of the integrated PDs, the responsivity R, and specific detectivity D* are determined by these equations,37,38
ΔP=S×IP,
(1)
R=ΔIΔP,
(2)
D*=AR2eId.
(3)
Here, S is the side wall area of the PD (about 1000 µm2), IP is the optical power density, ΔI is the photocurrent (subtracting the dark-current from the photo-excited current), ΔP is the incident light intensity, A is the effective illuminated area, e is the elementary electric charge, and Id is the dark-current. The comparison of responsivity and specific detectivity for PD S1 and S2 are shown in Figs. 3(e) and 3(f). Obviously, both R and D* values of PD S2 are much better than that of PD S1. The value of R is about 110.3 A/W, and D* is ∼2.2 × 1013 Jones for the PD S2 operated under 0 V bias. Meanwhile, it is known that the operation bandwidth of the on-chip optical communication system is directly limited by the frequency responses of the emitter and receiver.39 The transient response capability of the devices can be indirectly reflected by the time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) spectra. Figure 3(g) shows the carrier lifetime for LED S1 (1.78 ns) and LED S2 (1.25 ns) at an excitation power of 20 mW.40 Undoubtedly, reducing the carrier lifetime means to improve the modulation bandwidth of the integrated chip, which is essential to improve the communication rate. The lower carrier lifetime for the epilayer S2 demonstrates the greater application potential to achieve the high-speed on-chip optical communication of monolithically integrated chips.
FIG. 3.

EL spectra of LED S1 (a1) and LED S2 (a2) under variable currents from 5 to 20 mA. (b) PL spectra of LED S1 and LED S2. I–V plots of PD S1 (c1) and PD S2 (c2) responding to the illumination from integrated LEDs operated at currents from 0 (dark) to 50 mA. (d) Comparison of PDCR of PD S1 and PD S2 under 0 V bias. Responsivity (e) and specific detectivity (f) of two types PDs under different voltages. (g) Carrier lifetime of LED S1 and LED S2 at an excitation power of 20 mW.

FIG. 3.

EL spectra of LED S1 (a1) and LED S2 (a2) under variable currents from 5 to 20 mA. (b) PL spectra of LED S1 and LED S2. I–V plots of PD S1 (c1) and PD S2 (c2) responding to the illumination from integrated LEDs operated at currents from 0 (dark) to 50 mA. (d) Comparison of PDCR of PD S1 and PD S2 under 0 V bias. Responsivity (e) and specific detectivity (f) of two types PDs under different voltages. (g) Carrier lifetime of LED S1 and LED S2 at an excitation power of 20 mW.

Close modal

Figure 4(a) shows the time-resolved photocurrent of the PD in device S2 in response to the turn-on and turn-off of the connective LED illumination from 50 to 10 mA. Obviously, the on-chip transmission of optical signals is extremely stable. When the LED is loaded with pseudo-random binary sequence (PRBS) signals with different data transmission rates, the PD will capture and output the corresponding signals, as shown in Fig. 4(b). Despite the data transmission rate increasing gradually, the PD still could receive and output the 150 Mbps optical signals steadily. The observed eye diagrams are shown in Fig. 4(c), where the eye width decreases gradually with an increase in the communication rate, but the eye height could remain stable. The clear opening eye diagrams demonstrate the great potential in high-speed on-chip UVC communication.41 In general, the rise time (tr) and the decay time (td) are used to reflect the transient response capability of the integrated PD in the on-chip optical communication system.42 The tr is defined as the time rising from 10% to 90% of maximum photocurrent, and the td is defined as the time decaying from 90% to 10% of maximum photocurrent, respectively.43,44 It should be noted that in order to output the high-frequency signals to the oscilloscope, the photocurrent signals are amplified and converted into the voltage signals, as shown in Fig. 4(d). The tr and td are both on the order of nanoseconds, illustrating the outstanding transient response capability of the integrated PD operated under 0 V bias.45 Overall, the whole on-chip optical communication capability of solar blind monolithically integrated chips presents excellent performances compared to those of independent or integrated self-driven PDs fabricated with different materials or structural types in previous reports, as presented in Table I. The on-chip optical signal transmission of the solar blind integrated chip is basically not affected by the extremely weak solar blind light in the ambient background. Furthermore, for the solar blind LED based on the AlGaN materials, light propagation direction has been dominated by edge-emitting TM polarization modes, which is extremely beneficial for on-chip transverse transmission of optical signals. In view of low energy consumption, this self-driven PD with an outstanding response performance will undoubtedly promote the development of future large-area photonic integrated systems.

FIG. 4.

(a) Induced photocurrent temporal trace of the PD at 0 V bias with the cyclical light (50, 30, 10 mA)/dark (0 mA) changes in the corresponding LED. (b) Received output signals captured by the integrated PD when the integrated LED is loaded PRBS signals at 50, 100, 150 Mbps, respectively. (c) Eye diagrams at the on-chip data transmission rate from 50 to 150 Mbps for the on-chip optical communication integrated chip. (d) Rise and decay time constant curves obtained from the experimental data in panel (a).

FIG. 4.

(a) Induced photocurrent temporal trace of the PD at 0 V bias with the cyclical light (50, 30, 10 mA)/dark (0 mA) changes in the corresponding LED. (b) Received output signals captured by the integrated PD when the integrated LED is loaded PRBS signals at 50, 100, 150 Mbps, respectively. (c) Eye diagrams at the on-chip data transmission rate from 50 to 150 Mbps for the on-chip optical communication integrated chip. (d) Rise and decay time constant curves obtained from the experimental data in panel (a).

Close modal
TABLE I.

Comparison of basic detection performances of the integrated PDs with other published PDs at 0 V bias. Boldface denotes the device performances in this work.

Descriptionλin (nm)On/off rationτrdCommunication rate (on-chip)References
InGaN/GaN-MQWs PD 390 ∼102 ⋯ ⋯ 46  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs PD 470 ∼103 ⋯ ⋯ 15  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs PD 460 ∼105 ⋯ ⋯ 47  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs integrated PD 452 ∼105 1.1/2.0 ns 250 Mbps (PRBS) 10  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs integrated PD 450 ⋯ ⋯ 1 MHz (square signal) 48  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs integrated PD 450 ∼107 ⋯ 10 Mbps (PRBS) 28  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs integrated PD ⋯ ∼106 ⋯ ⋯ 49  
AlGaN-MQWs integrated PD 280 ∼106 ⋯ ⋯ 17  
AlGaN-MQWs integrated PD 275 ∼107 127/131 ns 1 MHz (square signal) 18  
AlGaN-MQWs integrated PD 275 5.14 × 107 2.16/2.28 ns 150 Mbps (PRBS) This work 
Descriptionλin (nm)On/off rationτrdCommunication rate (on-chip)References
InGaN/GaN-MQWs PD 390 ∼102 ⋯ ⋯ 46  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs PD 470 ∼103 ⋯ ⋯ 15  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs PD 460 ∼105 ⋯ ⋯ 47  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs integrated PD 452 ∼105 1.1/2.0 ns 250 Mbps (PRBS) 10  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs integrated PD 450 ⋯ ⋯ 1 MHz (square signal) 48  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs integrated PD 450 ∼107 ⋯ 10 Mbps (PRBS) 28  
InGaN/GaN-MQWs integrated PD ⋯ ∼106 ⋯ ⋯ 49  
AlGaN-MQWs integrated PD 280 ∼106 ⋯ ⋯ 17  
AlGaN-MQWs integrated PD 275 ∼107 127/131 ns 1 MHz (square signal) 18  
AlGaN-MQWs integrated PD 275 5.14 × 107 2.16/2.28 ns 150 Mbps (PRBS) This work 

In order to further verify the real-time on-chip information transmission capability of the integrated chip, the on-chip video transmission system is set up as the schematic diagram shown in Fig. 5(a). This system is encapsulated of six main components: (I) Camera used for real-time collecting of environment information. (II) Converter used to transform the CVBS signal from DC signal to AC signal. (III) Transceiver integrated module, including the amplified circuit and the on-chip optical transmission integrated chip. (IV) Converter used to transform the CVBS signal from AC signal to DC signal. (V) Converter used to transform the CVBS signal to HDMI signal. (VI) Video display used to real-time display the information collected by the camera. Here, the integrated chip is packaged in a multi-pin lumen shell in order to confine the light inside the chip for efficient transmission. The physical map is shown in Fig. 5(b), which is exactly corresponding with Fig. 5(a). The part III is the core module of the whole video information on-chip transmission system, which is composed of a monolithically integrated chip controlled by the driving circuit. The conceptual diagram of the transceiver integrated module is shown in Fig. 5(c). The video signal is directly input into the forward-biased integrated LED, and then, the optical information is transmitted and received by the integrated chip and converted into the electrical signal. The electrical signal received by the integrated PD is eventually amplified and output. The video (see Visualization 1) shows the process of the real-time video signal transmission using the monolithically integrated chip. The behavior of the presenter cannot be transmitted to the video display shown in Fig. 5(d2) because the system is not working when the integrated chip is cut off, as shown in Fig. 5(d1). When the system is in the open state shown in Fig. 5(e1), the transmission of the optical signals continues to work. The video display will broadcast the action of the presenter in real time, as shown in Fig. 5(e2). This successful application of the on-chip video signal transmission forecasts the great potential in the on-chip optical information transmission and provides a new technical route for more nitrides integrated applications on the horizon.50 

FIG. 5.

(a) Schematic diagram of the real-time on-chip video signal transmission system using the monolithically integrated chip. (b) Physical map of the real-time on-chip video signal transmission system, where the red labels match with those in panel (a). (c) Conceptual diagram of the transceiver integrated module (III), where the violet shadow region is the equivalent circuit of the LED-PD integrated chip. (d1) and (d2) When the light path in the integrated chip is cut off, the system is not able to transmit the video (Multimedia available online). (e1) and (e2) When the light path in the integrated chip is opened, the system transmits the presenter's action to the display screen in real time. (Multimedia available online).

FIG. 5.

(a) Schematic diagram of the real-time on-chip video signal transmission system using the monolithically integrated chip. (b) Physical map of the real-time on-chip video signal transmission system, where the red labels match with those in panel (a). (c) Conceptual diagram of the transceiver integrated module (III), where the violet shadow region is the equivalent circuit of the LED-PD integrated chip. (d1) and (d2) When the light path in the integrated chip is cut off, the system is not able to transmit the video (Multimedia available online). (e1) and (e2) When the light path in the integrated chip is opened, the system transmits the presenter's action to the display screen in real time. (Multimedia available online).

Close modal

In summary, AlGaN-based UVC LED structures are grown to fabricate monolithically integrated chips, including the LED, PD, and waveguide. The conventional high Al component EBL is changed to the SLs-EBL structure for extending the built-in electric field to enhance the overall communication capability of the monolithically integrated photonic chip. The PDCR of the self-driven PD is up to 5.14 × 107, which sets a record-breaking precedent in the current nitride photonic integrated chips. The integrated chips enable stable on-chip optical communication under a high-speed communication rate of 150 Mbps, while the rise/decay time is both on the order of nanosecond, confirming the outstanding transient response capability. The photonic integrated chips are utilized to construct an on-chip optical information transmission system, designed for real-time transmission of video signals within the photonic chip.

Currently, applications based on photonic integrated chips are primarily focused on sensing and monitoring. The on-chip optical information transmission of practical audio or video signals is still in the preliminary research. The designed SLs-EBL structure offers a new approach to further enhance the communication capabilities of photonic integrated chips. Furthermore, the on-chip communication application achieves the breakthrough from traditional “0101001” signals to practical video signals. Although the communication system has not achieved full integration at present, this remains the goal of our research efforts. Subsequent experiments will consider integrating more multifunctional devices to pursue higher levels of integration, which is also the inevitable path for the future development and application of large-scale PIC.

The supplementary material contains Visualization 1 showing the process of the real-time video signal transmission using the monolithically integrated chip.

We thank H. Yu and Z. G. Yu for the discussions of communication application. We thank Y. Q. Gao and Y. W. Duo for the discussions of the epilayer growth. We thank the engineers at our lithography room for help in the fabrication of the integrated chips. This work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2022YFB3605003), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61974139, 52192614, and 62135013), the Beijing Natural Science Foundation (Grant No. 4222077), the Beijing Science and Technology Plan (Grant No. Z221100002722019), and the GuangDong Basic and Applied Basic Research Foundation (Grant No. 2022B1515120081).

The authors have no conflicts to disclose.

Rui He: Writing – original draft (equal). Yijian Song: Data curation (supporting). Naixin Liu: Software (supporting). Renfeng Chen: Resources (supporting). Jin Wu: Validation (supporting). Yufeng Wang: Methodology (supporting). Qiang Hu: Formal analysis (supporting). Xiongbin Chen: Supervision (supporting). Junxi Wang: Supervision (supporting). Jinmin Li: Supervision (supporting). Tongbo Wei: Writing – review & editing (equal).

The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding authors upon reasonable request.

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