It was brought to our attention, by Igor Milov and Dorota Klinger, that in our original article,1Fig. 2(c) was wrongly described as a cross-section TEM image for the Ru sample from a 12 keV X-ray pulse, while it was made for a 7 keV X-ray pulse.

Thus the Fig. 2 caption should read as follows:

FIG. 2. (a) A typical confocal microscope image of a Ru damage crater at 7 keV used to determine the fluence thresholds. (b) A SEM of a damage crater for the Ru sample from a 12 keV X-ray pulse near the threshold fluence. Note that the crater is not continuous. (c) A cross-section TEM for the Ru sample from a 7 keV X-ray pulse. Note that Pt (top material) was used as a coating material to preserve the material for thinning for use in the TEM. Voids in the Pt layer (white) can be seen where the Ru bends over itself at the walls of the crater. In the Ru layer (dark central material), between 10 to 20 nm of material has been removed in the formation of the damage crater when compared to the thickness outside the crater. Additionally, a thin crack has formed in the center of the crater extending to the Si substrate (light colored bottom material). The crack is a sign of thermal expansion and the missing material with high edges is typical of a melting process initiated just at or below the surface.

This erratum does not change the rest of the results and any of the conclusions and discussions in our publication. Furthermore, we have made a cross-section TEM image for the Ru sample from a 12 keV X-ray pulse (Fig. 1). The main features of the craters for both photon energies are the same, namely, the removal of 10 to 20 nm of material and a thin crack formed in the center of the crater extending to the Si substrate.

FIG. 1.

A cross-section TEM for the Ru sample irradiated with 12 keV X-ray pulse. Pt (top material) was used as a protection layer for TEM sample preparation. In the Ru layer (dark central material), between 10 to 20 nm of material has been removed in the formation of the damage crater when compared to the thickness outside the crater. Additionally, a thin crack has formed in the center of the crater extending to the Si substrate (light colored bottom material). White scalebar corresponds to 50 nm distance.

FIG. 1.

A cross-section TEM for the Ru sample irradiated with 12 keV X-ray pulse. Pt (top material) was used as a protection layer for TEM sample preparation. In the Ru layer (dark central material), between 10 to 20 nm of material has been removed in the formation of the damage crater when compared to the thickness outside the crater. Additionally, a thin crack has formed in the center of the crater extending to the Si substrate (light colored bottom material). White scalebar corresponds to 50 nm distance.

Close modal
FIG. 2.

(a) A typical confocal microscope image of a Ru damage crater at 7 keV used to determine the fluence thresholds. (b) A SEM of a damage crater for the Ru sample from a 12 keV X-ray pulse near the threshold fluence. Note that the crater is not continuous. (c) A cross-section TEM for the Ru sample from a 7 keV X-ray pulse. Note that Pt (top material) was used as a coating material to preserve the material for thinning for use in the TEM. Voids in the Pt layer (white) can be seen where the Ru bends over itself at the walls of the crater. In the Ru layer (dark central material), between 10 to 20 nm of material has been removed in the formation of the damage crater when compared to the thickness outside the crater. Additionally, a thin crack has formed in the center of the crater extending to the Si substrate (light colored bottom material). The crack is a sign of thermal expansion and the missing material with high edges is typical of a melting process initiated just at or below the surface.

FIG. 2.

(a) A typical confocal microscope image of a Ru damage crater at 7 keV used to determine the fluence thresholds. (b) A SEM of a damage crater for the Ru sample from a 12 keV X-ray pulse near the threshold fluence. Note that the crater is not continuous. (c) A cross-section TEM for the Ru sample from a 7 keV X-ray pulse. Note that Pt (top material) was used as a coating material to preserve the material for thinning for use in the TEM. Voids in the Pt layer (white) can be seen where the Ru bends over itself at the walls of the crater. In the Ru layer (dark central material), between 10 to 20 nm of material has been removed in the formation of the damage crater when compared to the thickness outside the crater. Additionally, a thin crack has formed in the center of the crater extending to the Si substrate (light colored bottom material). The crack is a sign of thermal expansion and the missing material with high edges is typical of a melting process initiated just at or below the surface.

Close modal
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