We propose an element mapping technique of nano-meso-microscale structures buried within large and/or thick objects by ptychographic x-ray diffraction microscopy using anomalous scattering. We performed quantitative imagings of both the electron density and Au element of Au/Ag nanoparticles at the pixel resolution of better than 10 nm in a field of view larger than 5 × 5 μm2 by directly phasing ptychographic coherent diffraction patterns acquired at two x-ray energies below the Au L3 edge. This method provides us with multiscale structural and elemental information for understanding the element/property relationship linking nanoscale structures to macroscopic functional properties in material and biological systems.

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