The nonlinear optical (NLO) and optical limiting (OL) properties of covalently linked graphene-porphyrin composite materials were investigated using Z-scan technique in nanosecond regime. We observed enhanced NLO and OL properties of graphene-porphyrin composites in comparison to the individual graphene and porphyrins. The improved OL property of composites is attributed to energy transfer between porphyrin and graphene, which improved excited state absorption and nonlinear scattering. Nonlinear optical susceptibilities χ(3) of graphene and graphene-porphyrin composites were, in the order of 1012esu, measured using degenerate four wave mixing technique in nanosecond regime. High values of excited state absorption and two-photon absorption were observed for the composites.

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