We report a microfluidic platform for the hydroponic growth of Arabidopsis plants with high-resolution visualization of root development and root-pathogen interactions. The platform comprises a set of parallel microchannels with individual input/output ports where 1-day old germinated seedlings are initially placed. Under optimum conditions, a root system grows in each microchannel and its images are recorded over a 198-h period. Different concentrations of plant growth media show different root growth characteristics. Later, the developed roots are inoculated with two plant pathogens (nematodes and zoospores) and their physicochemical interactions with the live root systems are observed.

1.
X.
Fu
and
N. P.
Harberd
,
Nature (London)
421
,
740
(
2003
).
2.
Q.
Li
,
B.
Li
,
H. J.
Kronzucker
, and
W.
Shi
,
Plant, Cell Environ.
33
,
1529
(
2010
).
3.
J. L.
Dangl
and
J. D. G.
Jones
,
Nature (London)
411
,
826
(
2001
).
4.
B.
Forde
and
H.
Lorenzo
,
Plant Soil
232
,
51
(
2001
).
5.
P.
Achard
,
H.
Cheng
,
L. D.
Grauwe
,
J.
Decat
,
H.
Schoutteten
,
T.
Moritz
,
D. V.
Straeten
,
J.
Peng
, and
N. P.
Harberd
,
Science
311
,
91
(
2006
).
6.
H.
Zhang
and
B. G.
Forde
,
Science
279
,
407
(
1998
).
7.
G.
Beemster
and
T. I.
Baskin
,
Plant Physiol.
116
,
1515
(
1998
).
8.
G.
Beemster
and
T. I.
Baskin
,
Plant Physiol.
124
,
1718
(
2000
).
9.
P. N.
Benfey
,
P. J.
Linstead
,
K.
Roberts
,
J. W.
Schiefelbein
,
M.
Hauser
, and
R. A.
Aeschbacher
,
Development
119
,
57
(
1993
).
10.
C. S.
Buer
,
J.
Masle
, and
G. O.
Wasteneys
,
Plant Cell Physiol.
41
,
1164
(
2000
).
11.
H.
Kanani
,
B.
Dutta
, and
M. I.
Klapa
,
BMC Syst. Biol.
4
,
177
(
2010
).
12.
F.
Migliaccio
,
A.
Fortunati
, and
P.
Tassone
,
Plant Signaling Behav.
4
,
183
(
2009
).
13.
N. D.
Miller
,
B. M.
Parks
, and
E. P.
Spalding
,
Plant J.
52
,
374
(
2007
).
14.
M.
Meier
,
E. M.
Lucchetta
, and
R. F.
Ismagilov
,
Lab Chip
10
,
2147
(
2010
).
15.
D. B.
Weibel
,
W. R.
DiLuzio
, and
G. M.
Whitesides
,
Nat. Rev. Microbiol.
5
,
209
(
2007
).
16.
B.
Dutta
,
H.
Kanani
,
J.
Quackenbush
, and
M. I.
Klapa
,
Biotechnol. Bioeng.
102
,
264
(
2009
).
17.
T.
Ingestad
and
G. I.
Agren
,
Ecol. Appl.
1
,
168
(
1991
).
18.
H.
Zhang
,
A. J.
Jennings
and
B. G.
Forde
,
J. Exp. Biol.
51
,
51
(
2000
).
19.
W.
Grunewald
,
G.
van Noorden
,
G.
van Isterdael
,
T.
Beeckman
,
G.
Gheysen
, and
U.
Mathesius
,
Plant Cell
21
,
2553
(
2009
).
20.
N.
Wuyts
,
G.
Lognay
,
R.
Swenne
, and
D.
De Waele
,
J. Exp. Biol.
57
,
2825
(
2006
).
21.
V. M.
Williamson
and
C. A.
Gleason
,
Curr. Opin. Plant Biol.
6
,
327
(
2003
).
22.
E.
Huitema
,
J. I.
Bos
,
M.
Tian
,
J.
Win
,
M. E.
Waugh
, and
S.
Kamoun
,
Trends Microbiol.
12
,
193
(
2004
).
23.
P. F.
Morris
,
E.
Bone
, and
B. M.
Tyler
,
Plant Physiol.
117
,
1171
(
1998
).
24.
J. E.
Rookes
,
M. L.
Wright
, and
D. M.
Cahill
,
Physiol. Mol. Plant Pathol.
72
,
151
(
2008
).
25.
See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3604788 showing pathogens (SBNs and P. sojae) interacting with the Arabidopsis roots in microchannels.

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.