We report that an organic p-dopant tri[1,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)ethane-1,2-dithiolene] [Mo(tfd)3] resulted in higher density of holes than inorganic metal oxide dopants of ReO3 or MoO3 in 1,4-bis[N-(1-naphthyl)-N-phenylamino]-4,4-diamine even though the metal oxide dopants possess deeper work functions compared to Mo(tfd)3. Higher charge generation efficiency results largely from the homogeneous dispersion of Mo(tfd)3 in the host. In contradistinction, the transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a formation of metal oxide nanoclusters. This highlights the importance of homogeneous dispersion for an efficient doping.

You do not currently have access to this content.