To clarify the resistive switching and failure mechanisms in Al/amorphous TiO2/Al devices we investigate the microscopic change in amorphous titanium oxide films and interface layers after the set process according to film deposition temperatures. For low temperature (<150°C) samples, the thickness of top interface layer decreased after the set process due to the dissociation of a top interface layer by uniform migration of oxygen vacancies. Meanwhile, for high temperature samples, crystalline TiO phases emerged in the failed state, meaning the formation of conducting paths from the local clustering of oxygen vacancies in nonhomogeneous titanium oxide film.

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