High efficiency Cu2ZnSnS4 solar cells have been fabricated on glass substrates by thermal evaporation of Cu, Zn, Sn, and S. Solar cells with up to 6.8% efficiency were obtained with absorber layer thicknesses less than 1μm and annealing times in the minutes. Detailed electrical analysis of the devices indicate that the performance of the devices is limited by high series resistance, a “double diode” behavior of the current voltage characteristics, and an open circuit voltage that is limited by a carrier recombination process with an activation energy below the band gap of the material.

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