Triplet enhanced ladder-type poly (para-phenylene) polymer (PhLPPP) with covalently bound trace amounts of palladium blended with a fullerene derivative [[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM)] shows power conversion efficiencies (PCE) almost ten times greater than with pristine ladder-type polymer (with no palladium atom) blended with PCBM. The steady state optical properties of the triplet and nontriplet-enhanced polymers are comparable; the enhanced PCE and external quantum efficiency in PhLPPP photovoltaics are attributed to the presence of long-lived mobile triplet excitons. Furthermore, the luminescence from PhLPPP blends measured in a delayed setup correlates very well with the efficiency of the solar cells.

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