A tunnel junction is incorporated at the collector of a transistor laser to provide an effective method for voltage-controlled modulation via internal (intracavity) Franz–Keldysh photon-assisted tunneling. Electrical-optical signal mixing above threshold is made possible by the nonlinear coupling of the optical field to the base emitter-to-collector carrier transport and the base-to-collector electron tunneling. Microwave signal mixing with a common-emitter tunnel junction transistor laser is demonstrated with a pair of input sinusoidal signals: one at the base using current modulation and the other at the collector using voltage modulation, producing an optical output with harmonics of up to , despite being limited by amplifier bandwidth.
Electrical-optical signal mixing and multiplication with a tunnel junction transistor laser
H. W. Then, C. H. Wu, G. Walter, M. Feng, N. Holonyak; Electrical-optical signal mixing and multiplication with a tunnel junction transistor laser. Appl. Phys. Lett. 9 March 2009; 94 (10): 101114. https://doi.org/10.1063/1.3100294
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