Real-time analysis of the growth modes during homoepitaxial (0001) GaN growth by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy was performed using reflection high energy electron diffraction. A growth mode map was established as a function of GaN flux ratio and growth temperature, exhibiting distinct transitions between three-dimensional (3D), layer-by-layer, and step-flow growth modes. The layer-by-layer to step-flow growth transition under Ga-rich growth was surfactant mediated and related to a Ga adlayer coverage of one monolayer. Under N-rich conditions the transition from 3D to layer-by-layer growth was predominantly thermally activated, facilitating two-dimensional growth at temperatures of thermal decomposition.

1.
R. P.
Vaudo
,
I. D.
Goepfert
,
T. D.
Moustakas
,
D. M.
Beyea
,
T. D.
Frey
, and
K.
Meehan
,
J. Appl. Phys.
79
,
2779
(
1996
).
2.
H.
Riechert
,
R.
Averbeck
,
A.
Graber
,
M.
Schienle
,
U.
Strauß
, and
H.
Thews
,
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
449
,
149
(
1997
).
3.
S.
Rajan
,
P.
Waltereit
,
C.
Poblenz
,
S. J.
Heikman
,
D. S.
Green
,
J. S.
Speck
, and
U. K.
Mishra
,
IEEE Electron Device Lett.
25
,
247
(
2004
).
4.
B.
Heying
,
R.
Averbeck
,
L. F.
Chen
,
E.
Haus
,
H.
Riechert
, and
J. S.
Speck
,
J. Appl. Phys.
88
,
1855
(
2000
).
5.
C.
Adelmann
,
J.
Brault
,
D.
Jalabert
,
P.
Gentile
,
H.
Mariette
,
G.
Mula
, and
B.
Daudin
,
J. Appl. Phys.
91
,
9638
(
2002
).
6.
B.
Heying
,
I.
Smorchkova
,
C.
Poblenz
,
C.
Elsass
,
P.
Fini
,
S. P.
DenBaars
,
U. K.
Mishra
, and
J. S.
Speck
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
77
,
2885
(
2000
).
7.
G.
Koblmüller
,
J.
Brown
,
R.
Averbeck
,
H.
Riechert
,
P.
Pongratz
, and
J. S.
Speck
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2
44
,
L906
(
2005
).
8.
C. R.
Elsass
,
T.
Mates
,
B.
Heying
,
C.
Poblenz
,
P.
Fini
,
P. M.
Petroff
,
S. P.
DenBaars
, and
J. S.
Speck
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
77
,
3167
(
2000
).
9.
A. R.
Smith
,
R. M.
Feenstra
,
D. W.
Greve
,
M.-S.
Shin
,
M.
Skowronski
,
J.
Neugebauer
, and
J. E.
Northrup
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B
16
,
2242
(
1998
).
10.
G.
Koblmüller
,
R.
Averbeck
,
H.
Riechert
, and
P.
Pongratz
,
Phys. Rev. B
69
,
035325
(
2004
).
11.
T.
Zywietz
,
J.
Neugebauer
, and
M.
Scheffler
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
73
,
487
(
1998
).
12.
J.
Neugebauer
,
T.
Zywietz
,
M.
Scheffler
,
J. E.
Northrup
,
H.
Chen
, and
R. M.
Feenstra
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
90
,
056101
(
2003
).
13.
G.
Koblmüller
,
J.
Brown
,
R.
Averbeck
,
H.
Riechert
,
P.
Pongratz
, and
J. S.
Speck
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
86
,
041908
(
2005
).
14.
N.
Grandjean
and
J.
Massies
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
71
,
1816
(
1997
).
15.
B.
Daudin
and
F.
Widmann
,
J. Cryst. Growth
182
,
1
(
1997
).
16.
J. S.
Brown
,
G.
Koblmüller
,
F.
Wu
,
R.
Averbeck
,
H.
Riechert
, and
J. S.
Speck
,
J. Appl. Phys.
99
,
074902
(
2006
).
17.
C.
Adelmann
,
J.
Brault
,
G.
Mula
,
B.
Daudin
,
L.
Lymperakis
, and
J.
Neugebauer
,
Phys. Rev. B
67
,
165419
(
2003
).
18.
G.
Koblmüller
,
C. S.
Gallinat
, and
J. S.
Speck
,
J. Appl. Phys.
101
,
083516
(
2007
).
You do not currently have access to this content.