The authors have carried out measurements of the electrical conductivity of single bismuth nanowires fabricated by the low energy electron beam lithography using the silver/silicon nanowire shadow masks. The examined nanowires had cross-sectional dimensions of 40×30 and 40×50nm2. The chosen nanowire sizes had been slightly below the critical diameter D(50nm) at which a semimetal to semiconductor phase transition was predicted to occur. The results reveal a semiconductorlike temperature dependence of the electrical conductivity of a bismuth nanowire, which is strikingly different from that of the bulk bismuth.

1.
Y.
Liu
and
R. E.
Allen
,
Phys. Rev. B
52
,
1566
(
1995
).
2.
A.
Svizhenko
,
A.
Balandin
, and
S.
Bandyopadhyay
,
J. Appl. Phys.
81
,
7927
(
1997
).
3.
X.
Sun
,
Z.
Zhang
, and
M. S.
Dresselhaus
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
74
,
4005
(
1999
).
4.
Z.
Zhang
,
M. S.
Dresselhaus
, and
X.
Sun
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
73
,
1589
(
1998
).
5.
K.
Heremans
,
Phys. Rev. B
58
,
R10091
(
1998
).
6.
A.
Boukai
,
K.
Xu
, and
J.
Heath
,
Adv. Mater. (Weinheim, Ger.)
18
,
864
(
2006
).
7.
S. H.
Choi
,
K. L.
Wang
,
M. S.
Leung
,
G. W.
Stupian
,
N.
Presser
,
S. W.
Chung
,
G.
Markovich
,
S. H.
Kim
, and
J. R.
Heath
,
J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A
17
,
1425
(
1999
).
8.
S. W.
Chung
,
G.
Markovich
, and
J. R.
Heath
,
J. Phys. Chem.
102
,
6685
(
1998
).
9.
J. T.
Hu
,
T. W.
Odom
, and
C. M.
Lieber
,
Acc. Chem. Res.
32
,
435
(
1999
).
10.
N. W.
Ashcroft
and
N. D.
Mermin
,
Solid State Physics
(
Holt
,
Rinehart and Winston, New York
,
1976
), Chap. 13, p.
126
.
11.
A.
Casian
,
I.
Sur
,
A.
Sandu
,
H.
Scherrer
, and
S.
Scherrer
,
ICT’97 Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Thermoelectrics, Dresden, Germany, 1997
(
IEEE
,
Piscataway, NJ
,
1998
), IEEE Catalog No. 97th 8291, p.
442
;
I.
Sur
,
A.
Casian
, and
A. A.
Balandin
,
Phys. Rev. B
69
,
035306
(
2004
).
12.
H.
Sakaki
,
Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 2
19
,
L735
(
1980
).
13.
A.
Balandin
and
K. L.
Wang
,
J. Appl. Phys.
84
,
6149
(
1998
);
A.
Balandin
and
K. L.
Wang
,
Phys. Rev. B
58
,
1544
(
1998
);
J.
Zou
and
A.
Balandin
,
J. Appl. Phys.
89
,
2932
(
2001
).
You do not currently have access to this content.