The authors report on ferromagnetism at room temperature in cluster-free, cobalt- and manganese-ion-implanted crystalline silicon. Through magnetic and structural analysis it is shown that the ion-implanted Si consists of two layers of Co- and Mn-containing silicon: (1) an amorphous Si layer on the surface and (2) single crystalline Si beneath. The amorphous layer shows very little magnetism by itself but seems to be responsible for partially canceling out or masking the ferromagnetism in the crystalline Si. The authors also observe that etching of the amorphous Si layer dramatically enhances the measured magnetism by as much as 400%.

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