Native defects and Pr dopant around grain boundaries in Pr-doped and undoped ZnO bicrystals were investigated by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) with a focus on the relationship with the current–voltage characteristics. The Pr-doped bicrystal exhibited a nonlinear current–voltage characteristic, whereas the undoped bicrystal shows an ohmic characteristic. In the Pr-doped bicrystal, Pr was found to be present within 8nm around the grain boundary. EELS investigation of native defects combined with first-principles calculations indicated the presence of zinc vacancies in the vicinity of the Pr-doped grain boundary. The formation of zinc vacancies is considered to be the origin of the nonlinear current–voltage characteristic.

1.
F.
Greuter
and
G.
Blatter
,
Semicond. Sci. Technol.
5
,
111
(
1990
).
2.
D. R.
Clarke
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
82
,
485
(
1999
).
3.
G. E.
Pike
and
C. H.
Seager
,
J. Appl. Phys.
50
,
3414
(
1979
).
4.
F.
Oba
,
S. R.
Nishitani
,
S.
Isotani
,
H.
Adachi
, and
I.
Tanaka
,
J. Appl. Phys.
90
,
824
(
2001
).
5.
J.-R.
Lee
,
Y.-M.
Chiang
, and
G.
Ceder
,
Acta Mater.
45
,
1247
(
1997
).
6.
J. M.
Carlsson
,
H. S.
Domingos
,
P. D.
Bristowe
, and
B.
Hellsing
,
Phys. Rev. Lett.
91
,
165506
(
2003
).
7.
H. S.
Domingos
,
J. M.
Carlsson
,
P. D.
Bristowe
, and
B.
Hellsing
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
14
,
12717
(
2002
).
8.
A. F.
Kohan
,
G.
Ceder
,
D.
Morgan
, and
C. G.
Van de Walle
,
Phys. Rev. B
61
,
15019
(
2000
).
9.
S. B.
Zhang
,
S.-H.
Wei
, and
A.
Zunger
,
Phys. Rev. B
63
,
075205
1
(
2001
).
10.
F.
Oba
,
S. R.
Nishitani
,
H.
Adachi
,
I.
Tanaka
,
M.
Kohyama
, and
S.
Tanaka
,
Phys. Rev. B
63
,
045410
1
(
2001
).
11.
H. S.
Domingos
and
P. D.
Bristowe
,
Comput. Mater. Sci.
22
,
38
(
2001
).
12.
F.
Stucki
and
F.
Greuter
,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
57
,
446
(
1990
).
13.
I.
Tanaka
,
T.
Mizoguchi
,
M.
Matsui
,
S.
Yoshioka
,
H.
Adachi
,
T.
Yamamoto
,
T.
Okajima
,
M.
Umesaki
,
W. Y.
Ching
,
Y.
Inoue
,
M.
Mizuno
,
H.
Araki
, and
Y.
Shirai
,
Nat. Mater.
2
,
541
(
2003
).
14.
Y.
Sato
,
F.
Oba
,
M.
Yodogawa
,
T.
Yamamoto
, and
Y.
Ikuhara
,
J. Appl. Phys.
95
,
1258
(
2004
).
15.
Y.
Sato
,
F.
Oba
,
T.
Yamamoto
,
Y.
Ikuhara
, and
T.
Sakuma
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
85
,
2142
(
2002
).
16.
J.-H.
Guo
,
L.
Vayssieres
,
C.
Persson
,
R.
Ahuja
,
B.
Johansson
, and
J.
Nordgren
,
J. Phys.: Condens. Matter
14
,
6969
(
2002
).
17.
G.
Radtke
,
T.
Epicier
,
P.
B-Guillemaud
, and
J. C.
le Bossè
,
J. Microsc.
210
,
60
(
2003
).
18.
W. Y.
Ching
,
J. Am. Ceram. Soc.
73
,
3135
(
1990
).
19.
S.-D.
Mo
and
W. Y.
Ching
,
Phys. Rev. B
62
,
7901
(
2000
).
20.
Y.-S.
Lee
,
Y.
Murakami
,
D.
Shindo
, and
T.
Oikawa
,
Mater. Trans., JIM
41
,
555
(
2000
).
You do not currently have access to this content.