A tunable-focus spherical lens using two flat substrates and inhomogeneous electric field over a homogeneous liquid crystal (LC) layer is demonstrated. The top flat substrate has an imbedded spherical indium–tin–oxide (ITO) electrode and the bottom has a planar ITO electrode on its inner surface. The inhomogeneous electric field generates a centrosymmetric gradient refractive index profile within the LC layer which causes the focusing behavior. The focal length of the LC lens can be tuned continuously from infinity to 0.6 m by the applied voltage.

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