Crystallization is induced in amorphous 80 nm films of Ge48Te52 by electron irradiation to produce structures with characteristic dimensions as small as of 10–100 nm. The experiments are performed in a 200 keV field‐emission scanning transmission electron microscope (TEM/STEM) that provides an electron probe about 1–2 nm in diameter (FWHM) with approximately 1 nA of current. When entire films are annealed in the absence of electron irradiation, they crystallize at approximately 450 K. Crystallization occurs under focused‐probe electron irradiation when the average film temperature is as low as 300 K. The local transformation is driven by some combination of electron‐beam heating and radiation‐defect generation. A discussion is presented in the context of related nanocrystallization experiments driven by scanned‐probe techniques for optical data storage applications.

1.
R. W.
Devenish,
D. J.
Eaglesham,
D. M.
Maher
, and
C. J.
Humphreys,
Ultramicrosc.
28
,
324
(
1989
).
2.
A.
Muray,
M.
Isaacson
, and
I.
Adesida,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
45
,
589
(
1984
).
3.
Y.
Ito,
A. L.
Bleloch,
J. H.
Patterson
, and
L. M.
Brown,
Ultramicrosc.
52
,
347
(
1993
).
4.
G. S.
Chen,
C. B.
Boothroyd
, and
C. J.
Humphreys,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
62
,
1949
(
1993
).
5.
M.
Libera
and
M.
Chen,
Mater. Res. Bull.
XV
,
40
(
1990
).
6.
L. Reimer, Scanning Electron Microscopy (Springer, Berlin, 1985).
7.
L. Reimer, Transmission Electron Microscopy (Springer, Berlin, 1989).
8.
L. W. Hobbs, ‘‘Radiation effects in analysis of inorganic specimens by TEM,’’ in Introduction to Analytical Electron Microscopy, edited by J. J. Hren, J. I. Goldstein, and D. C. Joy (Plenum, New York, 1979).
9.
A. M.
Stoneham,
Nucl. Instrum. Methods A
91
,
1
(
1994
).
10.
L. A. J.
Garvie
and
A. J.
Craven,
Ultramicrosc.
54
,
83
(
1994
).
11.
M. L.
Knotek
and
P. J.
Feibelman,
Surf. Sci.
90
,
78
(
1979
).
12.
M.
Libera
and
M.
Chen,
J. Appl. Phys.
73
,
2272
(
1993
).
13.
Q. M.
Lu
and
M.
Libera,
J. Appl. Phys.
77
,
517
(
1995
).
14.
M.
Libera,
M.
Chen
, and
K.
Rubin,
J. Mater. Res.
6
,
2666
(
1991
).
15.
M.
Libera,
Mater. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc.
343
,
89
(
1994
).
16.
A. Sato and Y. Tsukamoto, Adv. Mater. 6, 79 (1994).
17.
A.
Sato
and
Y.
Tsukamoto,
Nature
363
,
431
(
1993
).
18.
J.
Nakamura,
M.
Miyamoto,
S.
Hosaka
, and
H.
Koyanagi,
J. Appl. Phys.
15
,
779
(
1995
).
19.
E.
Betzig,
J. K.
Trautman,
T. D.
Harris,
J. S.
Weiner
, and
R. L.
Kostelak,
Science
251
,
1468
(
1991
).
20.
E.
Betzig,
J. K.
Trautman,
R.
Wolfe,
E. M.
Gyorgy,
P. L.
Flinn,
M. H.
Kryder
, and
C.-H.
Chang,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
51
,
142
(
1992
).
21.
B. D.
Terris,
H. J.
Mamin,
D.
Rugar,
W. R.
Studenmund
, and
G. S.
Kino,
Appl. Phys. Lett.
65
,
388
(
1994
).
This content is only available via PDF.
You do not currently have access to this content.