Sensitivity stands as a critical figure of merit in assessing the performance of a photodetector and can be characterized by two distinct parameters: responsivity or detectivity. Simultaneous optimization of these two parameters is essential to ensure the applicability of a single detector across various scenarios, yet it remains a persistent challenge for mid-infrared photodetector. Here, we demonstrate that the construction of a photoconductive detector based on a MoS2/BP/MoS2 npn junction field-effect transistor configuration can effectively balance the tradeoffs between photoresponsivity and detectivity. In this device, the black phosphorus layer serves as the channel, while the top and bottom MoS2 layers act as photogates to boost the photocurrent. Consequently, a high-performance room-temperature-operating mid-infrared photodetector with a responsivity and detectivity reaching 9.04 A W−1 and 5.36 × 109 cm Hz1/2 W−1 (1550 nm), and 7.25 A W−1 and 4.29 × 109 cm Hz1/2 W−1 (3600 nm) is achieved. Our study provides an alternative structural design, enabling the applications of mid-infrared photodetectors across multiple scenarios.

1.
F. H.
Koppens
,
T.
Mueller
,
P.
Avouris
,
A. C.
Ferrari
,
M. S.
Vitiello
, and
M.
Polini
,
Nat. Nanotechnol.
9
(
10
),
780
(
2014
).
2.
A.
Rogalski
,
Prog. Quantum Electron.
27
(
2
),
59
(
2003
).
3.
A.
Rogalski
,
J.
Antoszewski
, and
L.
Faraone
,
J. Appl. Phys.
105
(
9
),
091101
(
2009
).
4.
F.
Xia
,
H.
Wang
,
D.
Xiao
,
M.
Dubey
, and
A.
Ramasubramaniam
,
Nat. Photonics
8
(
12
),
899
(
2014
).
5.
H.
Wang
,
Z.
Li
,
D.
Li
,
X.
Xu
,
P.
Chen
,
L.
Pi
,
X.
Zhou
, and
T.
Zhai
,
Adv. Funct. Mater.
31
(
49
),
2106105
(
2021
).
6.
X.
Zhou
,
X.
Hu
,
S.
Zhou
,
H.
Song
,
Q.
Zhang
,
L.
Pi
,
L.
Li
,
H.
Li
,
J.
, and
T.
Zhai
,
Adv. Mater.
30
(
7
),
1703286
(
2018
).
7.
A.
Rogalski
,
K.
Adamiec
, and
J.
Rutkowski
,
Narrow-Gap Semiconductor Photodiodes
(
SPIE Publications
,
2000
).
8.
H.
Wang
,
Z.
Li
,
D.
Li
,
P.
Chen
,
L.
Pi
,
X.
Zhou
, and
T.
Zhai
,
Adv. Funct. Mater.
31
(
30
),
2103106
(
2021
).
9.
R.
Han
,
S.
Feng
,
D.-M.
Sun
, and
H.-M.
Cheng
,
Sci. China Inf. Sci.
64
(
4
),
140402
(
2021
).
10.
M.
Huang
,
M.
Wang
,
C.
Chen
,
Z.
Ma
,
X.
Li
,
J.
Han
, and
Y.
Wu
,
Adv. Mater.
28
(
18
),
3481
(
2016
).
11.
H.
Yuan
,
X.
Liu
,
F.
Afshinmanesh
,
W.
Li
,
G.
Xu
,
J.
Sun
,
B.
Lian
,
A. G.
Curto
,
G.
Ye
,
Y.
Hikita
,
Z.
Shen
,
S.-C.
Zhang
,
X.
Chen
,
M.
Brongersma
,
H. Y.
Hwang
, and
Y.
Cui
,
Nat. Nanotechnol.
10
(
8
),
707
(
2015
).
12.
H.
Huang
,
J.
Wang
,
W.
Hu
,
L.
Liao
,
P.
Wang
,
X.
Wang
,
F.
Gong
,
Y.
Chen
,
G.
Wu
,
W.
Luo
,
H.
Shen
,
T.
Lin
,
J.
Sun
,
X.
Meng
,
X.
Chen
, and
J.
Chu
,
Nanotechnology
27
(
44
),
445201
(
2016
).
13.
W.
Choi
,
M. Y.
Cho
,
A.
Konar
,
J. H.
Lee
,
G. B.
Cha
,
S. C.
Hong
,
S.
Kim
,
J.
Kim
,
D.
Jena
,
J.
Joo
, and
S.
Kim
,
Adv. Mater.
24
(
43
),
5832
(
2012
).
14.
M.
Amani
,
C.
Tan
,
G.
Zhang
,
C.
Zhao
,
J.
Bullock
,
X.
Song
,
H.
Kim
,
V. R.
Shrestha
,
Y.
Gao
,
K. B.
Crozier
,
M.
Scott
, and
A.
Javey
,
ACS Nano
12
(
7
),
7253
(
2018
).
15.
Y.
Deng
,
Z.
Luo
,
N. J.
Conrad
,
H.
Liu
,
Y.
Gong
,
S.
Najmaei
,
P. M.
Ajayan
,
J.
Lou
,
X.
Xu
, and
P. D.
Ye
,
ACS Nano
8
(
8
),
8292
(
2014
).
16.
F.
Wang
,
Z.
Liu
,
T.
Zhang
,
M.
Long
,
X.
Wang
,
R.
Xie
,
H.
Ge
,
H.
Wang
,
J.
Hou
,
Y.
Gu
,
X.
Hu
,
Z.
Song
,
S.
Wang
,
Q.
Dong
,
K.
Liao
,
Y.
Tu
,
T.
Han
,
F.
Li
,
Z.
Zhang
,
X.
Hou
,
S.
Wang
,
L.
Li
,
X.
Zhang
,
D.
Zhao
,
C.
Shan
,
L.
Shan
, and
W.
Hu
,
Adv. Mater.
34
(
39
),
e2203283
(
2022
).
17.
P.
Luo
,
F.
Wang
,
J.
Qu
,
K.
Liu
,
X.
Hu
,
K.
Liu
, and
T.
Zhai
,
Adv. Funct. Mater.
31
(
8
),
2008351
(
2020
).
18.
H.
Fang
and
W.
Hu
,
Adv. Sci.
4
(
12
),
1700323
(
2017
).
19.
D. H.
Kwak
,
P.
Ramasamy
,
Y. S.
Lee
,
M. H.
Jeong
, and
J. S.
Lee
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
11
(
32
),
29041
(
2019
).
20.
A. Y.
Lee
,
H. S.
Ra
,
D. H.
Kwak
,
M. H.
Jeong
,
J. H.
Park
,
Y. S.
Kang
,
W. S.
Chae
, and
J. S.
Lee
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
10
(
18
),
16033
(
2018
).
21.
J. O.
Island
,
G. A.
Steele
,
H. S. J.
van der Zant
, and
A.
Castellanos-Gomez
,
2D Mater.
2
(
1
),
011002
(
2015
).
22.
A.
Favron
,
E.
Gaufrès
,
F.
Fossard
,
A.-L.
Phaneuf-L'Heureux
,
N. Y. W.
Tang
,
P. L.
Lévesque
,
A.
Loiseau
,
R.
Leonelli
,
S.
Francoeur
, and
R.
Martel
,
Nat. Mater.
14
(
8
),
826
(
2015
).
23.
L.
Ye
,
H.
Li
,
Z.
Chen
, and
J.
Xu
,
ACS Photonics
3
(
4
),
692
(
2016
).
24.
C.
Liu
,
S.
Ding
,
Q.
Tian
,
X.
Hong
,
W.
Su
,
L.
Tang
,
L.
Wang
,
M.
Zhang
,
X.
Liu
,
Y.
Lv
,
J. C.
Ho
,
L.
Liao
, and
X.
Zou
,
Laser Photonics Rev.
17
(
2
),
2200486
(
2022
).
25.
Y.
Chen
,
Y.
Wang
,
Z.
Wang
,
Y.
Gu
,
Y.
Ye
,
X.
Chai
,
J.
Ye
,
Y.
Chen
,
R.
Xie
,
Y.
Zhou
,
Z.
Hu
,
Q.
Li
,
L.
Zhang
,
F.
Wang
,
P.
Wang
,
J.
Miao
,
J.
Wang
,
X.
Chen
,
W.
Lu
,
P.
Zhou
, and
W.
Hu
,
Nat. Electron.
4
(
5
),
357
(
2021
).
26.
T.
Hong
,
B.
Chamlagain
,
T.
Wang
,
H. J.
Chuang
,
Z.
Zhou
, and
Y. Q.
Xu
,
Nanoscale
7
(
44
),
18537
(
2015
).
27.
H.
Wang
,
F.
Wang
,
H.
Xia
,
P.
Wang
,
T.
Li
,
J.
Li
,
Z.
Wang
,
J.
Sun
,
P.
Wu
,
J.
Ye
,
Q.
Zhuang
,
Z.
Yang
,
L.
Fu
,
W.
Hu
,
X.
Chen
, and
W.
Lu
,
Natl. Sci. Rev.
8
(
9
),
nwaa295
(
2021
).
28.
Y.
Liu
,
J.
Guo
,
E.
Zhu
,
L.
Liao
,
S. J.
Lee
,
M.
Ding
,
I.
Shakir
,
V.
Gambin
,
Y.
Huang
, and
X.
Duan
,
Nature
557
(
7707
),
696
(
2018
).
29.
J.-Y.
Wu
,
Y. T.
Chun
,
S.
Li
,
T.
Zhang
,
J.
Wang
,
P.
Kumar Shrestha
, and
D.
Chu
,
Adv. Mater.
30
(
7
),
1705880
(
2018
).
30.
D.
Yang
,
X.
Hu
,
M.
Zhuang
,
Y.
Ding
,
S.
Zhou
,
A.
Li
,
Y.
Yu
,
H.
Li
,
Z.
Luo
,
L.
Gan
, and
T.
Zhai
,
Adv. Funct. Mater.
28
(
26
),
1800785
(
2018
).
31.
X.
Yu
,
P.
Yu
,
D.
Wu
,
B.
Singh
,
Q.
Zeng
,
H.
Lin
,
W.
Zhou
,
J.
Lin
,
K.
Suenaga
,
Z.
Liu
, and
Q. J.
Wang
,
Nat. Commun.
9
(
1
),
1545
(
2018
).
32.
W.
Yan
,
V. R.
Shresha
,
Q.
Jeangros
,
N. S.
Azar
,
S.
Balendhran
,
C.
Ballif
,
K.
Crozier
, and
J.
Bullock
,
ACS Nano
14
(
10
),
13645
(
2020
).
33.
J.
Bullock
,
M.
Amani
,
J.
Cho
,
Y.-Z.
Chen
,
G. H.
Ahn
,
V.
Adinolfi
,
V. R.
Shrestha
,
Y.
Gao
,
K. B.
Crozier
,
Y.-L.
Chueh
, and
A.
Javey
,
Nat. Photonics
12
(
10
),
601
(
2018
).
34.
J.
Ding
,
X.
Wang
,
Z.
Song
,
S.
Wang
,
Y.
Lu
,
W.
Wang
,
T.
Han
,
F.
Li
,
X.
Zhu
,
L.
Shan
, and
M.
Long
,
Adv. Sensor Res.
2
(
9
),
2300029
(
2023
).
35.
Y.
Chen
,
C.
Tan
,
Z.
Wang
,
J.
Miao
,
X.
Ge
,
T.
Zhao
,
K.
Liao
,
H.
Ge
,
Y.
Wang
,
F.
Wang
,
Y.
Zhou
,
P.
Wang
,
X.
Zhou
,
C.
Shan
,
H.
Peng
, and
W.
Hu
,
Sci. Adv.
8
(
30
),
eabq1781
(
2022
).
36.
H.
Jiao
,
X.
Wang
,
Y.
Chen
,
S.
Guo
,
S.
Wu
,
C.
Song
,
S.
Huang
,
X.
Huang
,
X.
Tai
,
T.
Lin
,
H.
Shen
,
H.
Yan
,
W.
Hu
,
X.
Meng
,
J.
Chu
,
Y.
Zhang
, and
J.
Wang
,
Sci. Adv.
8
(
19
),
eabn1811
(
2022
).
37.
P.-L.
Chen
,
Y.
Chen
,
T.-Y.
Chang
,
W.-Q.
Li
,
J.-X.
Li
,
S.
Lee
,
Z.
Fang
,
M.
Li
,
A.
Majumdar
, and
C.-H.
Liu
,
ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces
14
(
21
),
24856
(
2022
).
38.
M.
Buscema
,
D. J.
Groenendijk
,
S. I.
Blanter
,
G. A.
Steele
,
H. S. J.
van der Zant
, and
A.
Castellanos-Gomez
,
Nano Lett.
14
(
6
),
3347
(
2014
).
39.
C.
Chen
,
N.
Youngblood
,
R.
Peng
,
D.
Yoo
,
D. A.
Mohr
,
T. W.
Johnson
,
S.-H.
Oh
, and
M.
Li
,
Nano Lett.
17
(
2
),
985
(
2017
).
40.
F.
Gong
,
F.
Wu
,
M.
Long
,
F.
Chen
,
M.
Su
,
Z.
Yang
, and
J.
Shi
,
Phys. Status Solidi (RRL)
12
(
12
),
1800310
(
2018
).
41.
C.
Hou
,
L.
Yang
,
B.
Li
,
Q.
Zhang
,
Y.
Li
,
Q.
Yue
,
Y.
Wang
,
Z.
Yang
, and
L.
Dong
,
Sensors
18
(
6
),
1668
(
2018
).
42.
Q.
Guo
,
A.
Pospischil
,
M.
Bhuiyan
,
H.
Jiang
,
H.
Tian
,
D.
Farmer
,
B.
Deng
,
C.
Li
,
S.-J.
Han
,
H.
Wang
,
Q.
Xia
,
T.-P.
Ma
,
T.
Mueller
, and
F.
Xia
,
Nano Lett.
16
(
7
),
4648
(
2016
).
43.
M.
Peng
,
Y.
Yu
,
Z.
Wang
,
X.
Fu
,
Y.
Gu
,
Y.
Wang
,
K.
Zhang
,
Z.
Zhang
,
M.
Huang
,
Z.
Cui
,
F.
Zhong
,
P.
Wu
,
J.
Ye
,
T.
Xu
,
Q.
Li
,
P.
Wang
,
F.
Yue
,
F.
Wu
,
J.
Dai
,
C.
Chen
, and
W.
Hu
,
ACS Photonics
9
(
5
),
1775
(
2022
).
44.
Y.
Wang
,
Y.
Gu
,
A.
Cui
,
Q.
Li
,
T.
He
,
K.
Zhang
,
Z.
Wang
,
Z.
Li
,
Z.
Zhang
,
P.
Wu
,
R.
Xie
,
F.
Wang
,
P.
Wang
,
C.
Shan
,
H.
Li
,
Z.
Ye
,
P.
Zhou
, and
W.
Hu
,
Adv. Mater.
34
(
6
),
e2107772
(
2022
).
45.
M.
Peng
,
R.
Xie
,
Z.
Wang
,
P.
Wang
,
F.
Wang
,
H.
Ge
,
Y.
Wang
,
F.
Zhong
,
P.
Wu
,
J.
Ye
,
Q.
Li
,
L.
Zhang
,
X.
Ge
,
Y.
Ye
,
Y.
Lei
,
W.
Jiang
,
Z.
Hu
,
F.
Wu
,
X.
Zhou
,
J.
Miao
,
J.
Wang
,
H.
Yan
,
C.
Shan
,
J.
Dai
,
C.
Chen
,
X.
Chen
,
W.
Lu
, and
W.
Hu
,
Sci. Adv.
7
(
16
),
eabf7358
(
2021
).

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.