Creating dense and shallow nitrogen-vacancy (NV) ensembles with good spin properties is a prerequisite for developing diamond-based quantum sensors exhibiting better performance. Ion implantation is a key enabling tool for precisely controlling spatial localization and density of NV color centers in diamond. However, it suffers from a low creation yield, while higher ion fluences significantly damage the crystal lattice. In this work, we realize N2+ ion implantation in the 30–40 keV range at high temperatures. At 800 °C, NV's ensemble photoluminescence emission is three to four times higher than room temperature implanted films, while narrow electron spin resonance linewidths of 1.5 MHz, comparable to well-established implantation techniques, are obtained. In addition, we found that ion fluences above 2 × 1014 ions/cm2 can be used without graphitization of the diamond film, in contrast to room temperature implantation. This study opens promising perspectives in optimizing diamond films with implanted NV ensembles that could be integrated into quantum sensing devices.

1.
D. D.
Awschalom
,
R.
Hanson
,
J.
Wrachtrup
, and
B. B.
Zhou
, “
Quantum technologies with optically interfaced solid-state spins
,”
Nat. Photonics
12
(
9
),
516
527
(
2018
).
2.
N.
Aslam
,
H.
Zhou
,
E. K.
Urbach
,
M. J.
Turner
,
R. L.
Walsworth
,
M. D.
Lukin
, and
H.
Park
, “
Quantum sensors for biomedical applications
,”
Nat. Rev. Phys.
5
,
157
169
(
2023
).
3.
L. V. H.
Rodgers
,
L. B.
Hughes
,
M.
Xie
,
P. C.
Maurer
,
S.
Kolkowitz
,
A. C.
Bleszynski Jayich
, and
N. P.
de Leon
, “
Materials challenges for quantum technologies based on color centers in diamond
,”
MRS Bull.
46
(
7
),
623
633
(
2021
).
4.
R.
Schirhagl
,
K.
Chang
,
M.
Loretz
, and
C. L.
Degen
, “
Nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: nanoscale sensors for physics and biology
,”
Annu. Rev. Phys. Chem.
65
(
1
),
83
105
(
2014
).
5.
L.
Rondin
,
J. P.
Tetienne
,
T.
Hingant
,
J.-F.
Roch
,
P.
Maletinsky
, and
V.
Jacques
, “
Magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy defects in diamond
,”
Rep. Prog. Phys.
77
(
5
),
056503
(
2014
).
6.
J. F.
Barry
,
J. M.
Schloss
,
E.
Bauch
,
M. J.
Turner
,
C. A.
Hart
,
L. M.
Pham
, and
R. L.
Walsworth
, “
Sensitivity optimization for NV-diamond magnetometry
,”
Rev. Mod. Phys.
92
(
1
),
015004
(
2020
).
7.
S.
Mi
,
M.
Kiss
,
T.
Graziosi
, and
N.
Quack
, “
Integrated photonic devices in single crystal diamond
,”
J. Phys. Photonics
2
(
4
),
042001
(
2020
).
8.
S. C.
Scholten
,
A. J.
Healey
,
I. O.
Robertson
,
G. J.
Abrahams
,
D. A.
Broadway
, and
J.-P.
Tetienne
, “
Widefield quantum microscopy with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond: Strengths, limitations, and prospects
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
130
(
15
),
150902
(
2021
).
9.
J.
Achard
,
V.
Jacques
, and
A.
Tallaire
, “
Chemical vapour deposition diamond single crystals with nitrogen-vacancy centres: A review of material synthesis and technology for quantum sensing applications
,”
J. Phys. D
53
(31),
313001
(
2020
).
10.
T.
Lühmann
,
N.
Raatz
,
R.
John
,
M.
Lesik
,
J.
Rödiger
,
M.
Portail
,
D.
Wildanger
,
F.
Kleißler
,
K.
Nordlund
,
A.
Zaitsev
,
J.-F.
Roch
,
A.
Tallaire
,
J.
Meijer
, and
S.
Pezzagna
, “
Screening and engineering of colour centres in diamond
,”
J. Phys. D
51
(
48
),
483002
(
2018
).
11.
J. M.
Smith
,
S. A.
Meynell
,
J. A. C.
Bleszynski
, and
J.
Meijer
, “
Colour centre generation in diamond for quantum technologies
,”
Nanophotonics
8
(
11
),
1889
1906
(
2019
).
12.
M.
Lesik
,
N.
Raatz
,
A.
Tallaire
,
P.
Spinicelli
,
R.
John
,
J.
Achard
,
A.
Gicquel
,
V.
Jacques
,
J.-F.
Roch
,
J.
Meijer
, and
S.
Pezzagna
, “
Production of bulk NV centre arrays by shallow implantation and diamond CVD overgrowth
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
213
(
10
),
2788
2788
(
2016
).
13.
M.
Lesik
,
T.
Plisson
,
L.
Toraille
,
J.
Renaud
,
F.
Occelli
,
M.
Schmidt
,
O.
Salord
,
A.
Delobbe
,
T.
Debuisschert
,
L.
Rondin
,
P.
Loubeyre
, and
J.-F.
Roch
, “
Magnetic measurements on micrometer-sized samples under high pressure using designed NV centers
,”
Science
366
(
6471
),
1359
1362
(
2019
).
14.
Z.
Huang
,
W.-D.
Li
,
C.
Santori
,
V. M.
Acosta
,
A.
Faraon
,
T.
Ishikawa
,
W.
Wu
,
D.
Winston
,
R. S.
Williams
, and
R. G.
Beausoleil
, “
Diamond nitrogen-vacancy centers created by scanning focused helium ion beam and annealing
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
103
(
8
),
081906
(
2013
).
15.
C.
Uzan‐Saguy
,
C.
Cytermann
,
R.
Brener
,
V.
Richter
,
M.
Shaanan
, and
R.
Kalish
, “
Damage threshold for ion‐beam induced graphitization of diamond
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
67
(
9
),
1194
1196
(
1995
).
16.
Y. H.
Lee
,
P. R.
Brosious
, and
J. W.
Corbett
, “
High-temperature ion implantation in diamond
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
50
(
1
),
237
242
(
1978
).
17.
G.
Braunstein
and
R.
Kalish
, “
Damage and lattice location studies in high‐temperature ion‐implanted diamond
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
38
(
6
),
416
418
(
1981
).
18.
J.
Suk
,
H.
Kim
,
W. C.
Lim
,
J.
Yune
,
S.
Moon
,
J. A.
Eliades
,
J.
Kim
,
J.
Lee
, and
J.
Song
, “
Fabrication of thin diamond membranes by using hot implantation and ion-cut methods
,”
Appl. Phys. Lett.
110
(
10
),
101903
(
2017
).
19.
V. P.
Popov
,
S. N.
Podlesny
,
I. A.
Kartashov
,
IN.
Kupriyanov
, and
Y. N.
Palyanov
, “
Long dephasing time of NV center spins in diamond layers formed by hot ion implantation and high pressure high temperature annealing
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
120
,
108675
(
2021
).
20.
J. O.
Orwa
,
C.
Santori
,
K. M. C.
Fu
,
B.
Gibson
,
D.
Simpson
,
I.
Aharonovich
,
A.
Stacey
,
A.
Cimmino
,
P.
Balog
,
M.
Markham
,
D.
Twitchen
,
A. D.
Greentree
,
R. G.
Beausoleil
, and
S.
Prawer
, “
Engineering of nitrogen-vacancy color centers in high purity diamond by ion implantation and annealing
,”
J. Appl. Phys.
109
(
8
),
083530
083537
(
2011
).
21.
S.
Pezzagna
,
D.
Rogalla
,
H. W.
Becker
,
I.
Jakobi
,
F.
Dolde
,
B.
Naydenov
,
J.
Wrachtrup
,
F.
Jelezko
,
C.
Trautmann
, and
J.
Meijer
, “
Creation of colour centres in diamond by collimated ion-implantation through nano-channels in mica
,”
Phys. Status Solidi A
208
(
9
),
2017
2022
(
2011
).
22.
A.
Tallaire
,
J.
Achard
,
F.
Silva
,
O.
Brinza
, and
A.
Gicquel
, “
Growth of large size diamond single crystals by plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition: Recent achievements and remaining challenges
,”
C. R. Phys.
14
,
169
184
(
2013
).
23.
M. W. N.
Ngambou
,
P.
Perrin
,
I.
Balasa
,
O.
Brinza
,
A.
Valentin
,
V.
Mille
,
F.
Bénédic
,
P.
Goldner
,
A.
Tallaire
, and
J.
Achard
, “
Optimizing ion implantation to create shallow NV centre ensembles in high-quality CVD diamond
,”
Mater. Quantum Technol.
2
(
4
),
045001
(
2022
).
24.
J. F.
Ziegler
,
M. D.
Ziegler
, and
J. P.
Biersack
, “
SRIM—The stopping and range of ions in matter (2010)
,”
Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res., Sect. B
268
(
11
),
1818
1823
(
2010
).
25.
A.
Dréau
,
M.
Lesik
,
L.
Rondin
,
P.
Spinicelli
,
O.
Arcizet
,
J. F.
Roch
, and
V.
Jacques
, “
Avoiding power broadening in optically detected magnetic resonance of single NV defects for enhanced dc magnetic field sensitivity
,”
Phys. Rev. B
84
(
19
),
195204
(
2011
).
26.
J. P.
Tetienne
,
R. W.
de Gille
,
D. A.
Broadway
,
T.
Teraji
,
S. E.
Lillie
,
J. M.
McCoey
,
N.
Dontschuk
,
L. T.
Hall
,
A.
Stacey
,
D. A.
Simpson
, and
L. C. L.
Hollenberg
, “
Spin properties of dense near-surface ensembles of nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond
,”
Phys. Rev. B
97
(
8
),
085402
(
2018
).
27.
S. D.
Trofimov
,
S. A.
Tarelkin
,
S. V.
Bolshedvorskii
,
V. S.
Bormashov
,
S. Y.
Troshchiev
,
A. V.
Golovanov
,
N. V.
Luparev
,
D. D.
Prikhodko
,
K. N.
Boldyrev
,
S. A.
Terentiev
,
A. V.
Akimov
,
N. I.
Kargin
,
N. S.
Kukin
,
A. S.
Gusev
,
A. A.
Shemukhin
,
Y. V.
Balakshin
,
S. G.
Buga
, and
V. D.
Blank
, “
Spatially controlled fabrication of single NV centers in IIa HPHT diamond
,”
Opt. Mater. Express
10
(
1
),
198
207
(
2020
).
28.
P.
Balasubramanian
,
C.
Osterkamp
,
O.
Brinza
,
M.
Rollo
,
I.
Robert-Philip
,
P.
Goldner
,
V.
Jacques
,
F.
Jelezko
,
J.
Achard
, and
A.
Tallaire
, “
Enhancement of the creation yield of NV ensembles in a chemically vapour deposited diamond
,”
Carbon
194
,
282
289
(
2022
).
29.
S.
Pezzagna
,
B.
Naydenov
,
F.
Jelezko
,
J.
Wrachtrup
, and
J.
Meijer
, “
Creation efficiency of nitrogen-vacancy centres in diamond
,”
New J. Phys.
12
(
6
),
065017
(
2010
).
30.
M. N. R.
Ashfold
,
J. P.
Goss
,
B. L.
Green
,
P. W.
May
,
M. E.
Newton
, and
C. V.
Peaker
, “
Nitrogen in diamond
,”
Chem. Rev.
120
,
5745
(
2020
).
31.
R.
Jones
, “
Dislocations, vacancies and the brown colour of CVD and natural diamond
,”
Diamond Relat. Mater.
18
(
5–8
),
820
826
(
2009
).
32.
T.
Lühmann
,
S.
Diziain
,
J.
Meijer
, and
S.
Pezzagna
, “
Identification and creation of the room-temperature coherently controllable ST1 spin center in diamond
,”
ACS Photonics
9
(
5
),
1691
1699
(
2022
).
33.
D. M.
Lukin
,
C.
Dory
,
M. A.
Guidry
,
K. Y.
Yang
,
S. D.
Mishra
,
R.
Trivedi
,
M.
Radulaski
,
S.
Sun
,
D.
Vercruysse
,
G. H.
Ahn
, and
J.
Vučković
, “
4H-silicon-carbide-on-insulator for integrated quantum and nonlinear photonics
,”
Nat. Photonics
14
(
5
),
330
334
(
2020
).
You do not currently have access to this content.