Generating out-of-plane spins in sputtered materials holds immense potential for achieving field-free spin–orbit torque switching in practical applications and mass production. In this work, we present the detection of out-of-plane spins from single-layer ferromagnetic Co layers, which are visualized through helicity-dependent photomapping techniques. Our experiments have shown that out-of-plane spins are dependent on the magnetization direction, current density, and Co thickness. Our findings indicate that amorphous sputtered Co can be a promising candidate as an out-of-plane spin source material for industrial massive production.

Supplementary Material

You do not currently have access to this content.